Radiation Biology

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njpeterson
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25772
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Radiation Biology
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2010-07-06 08:22:39
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Radiation Biology Test
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Flashcards for Radiation Biology Test #2
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  1. ________________ are essential to growth, construction, and repair of tissue; they also function as hormones and antibodies.
    Proteins
  2. _____________ provide fuel for cell metabolism.
    Carbohydrates
  3. ____________ act as a resevoir for long-term storage of engergy, guard the body against the environment, and protext organs.
    Lipids
  4. _______________ carry genetic information necessary for cell replication
    Nucleic Acids
  5. ____________ conpromises 80-85% of our bodies weight.
    Water
  6. Salts maintain correct portion of ____________ in the cell and support cell ______________ and aid in ____________ of nerve impulses.
    water, function, conduction
  7. The cell _____________ surrounds the cell, functions as a barricade, can controls passage of water and other materials in and out of the cell.
    membrane
  8. _________________ is the portion of the cell outside the nucleus in which all metabolic activity occurs.
    Cytoplasm
  9. The ___________ transports food and molecules from one part of the cell to another.
    endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  10. The Golgi apparatus unites __________ molecules with ___________ to form glycoproteins.
    large carbohydrate, proteins
  11. _______________ contains enzymes that produce energy for cellular activity.
    Mitochondria
  12. Lysosomes break down _________ molecules; they may rupture when exposed to _________, resulting in cell death.
    unwanted large molecules, radiation
  13. ___________ synthesize the various proteins that cells require.
    Ribosomes
  14. The ____________ controls cell division, multiplication, and biochemical reactions.
    nucleus
  15. Somatic cells divide through ___________.
    mitosis
  16. What are the four phases of mitosis?
    • 1. pre-DNA synthesis
    • 2. actual DNA synthesis
    • 3. post-DNA manufacturing
    • 4. division
  17. Genetic cells divide through ____________.
    meiosis
  18. The _____________ has mapped the entire sequence of DNA base pairs on all 46 chromosomes.
    Human Genome Project
  19. Low LET radiation is generally from what two (2) types of radiation?
    x-rays and gamma rays
  20. High LET is usually associated with what type(s) of radiation?
    Alpha particles and fast neutrons
  21. Low LET is referred to as having __________ damage, while high LET usually has __________ damage.
    indirect, direct
  22. ________________ is a by product of indirect reactions in which a solitary atom of combination of atoms acts as an exremely reactive single entity as a result of the presence of an unpaired electon.
    Free radical
  23. The damage produced by a free radical in the presence of oxygen is ____________.
    permanent of fixed
  24. _________________ states that if the cell DNA is affected by either indirect of direct reactions the cell will die.
    Target Theory
  25. A method of displaying the sensitivity of a particular type of cell radiation is _________________.
    cell survival curve
  26. The _________________ states the radiosensitivity of cells is directly proportional to their reproductive activity and inversely proportional to their degree of differentiation.
    Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau
  27. ______________ is a chemical used to enhance radiosensitivity.
    Oxygen
  28. Randomly occuring biologic somatic changes (late effects)
    Stochastic
  29. Directly related to the dose recieved (late and early effects)
    nonstochastic
  30. Acute radiation syndrome occurs when the whole body is exposed to _________________.
    large does of ionizing radiation
  31. What are the three systems affected by ARS?
    hematopietic, GI, cerebrovascular
  32. LD _________ for humans may be a more accurate estimate of lethal dose.
    50/60
  33. In cells exposed to sublethas doses ____% are repaired and _____& are irrepairable.
    90, 10
  34. Effects that occur with in hours, days, and weeks, are called ____________.
    early nonstochastic somatic
  35. __________________ effects take months to years to manifest.
    Late somatic effects
  36. _________ risk is defined that a specific number of cancers will occur as a result of exposure to x-radiation.
    Absolute
  37. _____________ risk describs the number of excess cancers rise as a natural incident.
    Relative
  38. At what point in a pregnancy is the fetus most radiosensitive?
    First trimester
  39. __________ effects are biological effects on generation unborn.
    Genetic
  40. _____________ are mutations in genes and DNA that occur at random as natural phenomenon.
    Spontaneous Mutations
  41. Annual effective dose limit.
    50 mSv (5 rem)
  42. Cumulative effective dose limit.
    10 mSv x age (1 rem x age)
  43. Lens of eye annual dose limit.
    150 mSv (15 rem)
  44. Localized areas of the skin, hands, and feet annual dose limit.
    500 mSv (50 rem)
  45. Monthly embryo and fetus exposures.
    .5 mSv (.05 rem)
  46. Entire gestation of embryo and fetus exposures.
    5 mSv (.5 rem)
  47. Oversees the nuclear engergy industry.
    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
  48. Enforce radiation protection regulations through their respective health departments.
    Agreement states
  49. Facilitates the development and enforcement of regulations pertaining to the control of radiation in the environment.
    Enviromental Protection Agency (EPA)
  50. Conducts an ongoing product of radiation control program, regulating the design and manufacture of electronic products, including x-ray equipment.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  51. Functions as a monitoring agency in places of employment, predominantly in industry.
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
  52. Evaluates information on biologic effects of radiation and provides radiation protection guidance through general recommendations on occupational and public dose limits.
    ICRP
  53. Reviews regulations formulated by the ICRP and decides ways to include those recommendatins in U.S. radiation protection criteria.
    NCRP
  54. Evaluates human and environment ionizing radiation exposure and derives radiation risk assessments from epidemiologic data and research conclusions; provides imformation to organizations such as the ICRP for evaluation.
    UNSCEAR
  55. Reviews studies of biologic effects of ionizing radiation and risk assessment and provides the information to organizations such as the ICRP for evaluation.
    BEIR
  56. List and describe the four (4) stages of acute radiation syndrome.
    • 1. Prodormal - occurs within hours after a whole body absorbed dose of 1 GY.
    • 2. Latent - about one week, during which no visible symptoms occur.
    • 3. Manifest illness - period when symptoms that affect the hematopietic, GI, and cerebrovascular system become visible.
    • 4. Recovery or death.
  57. Recieves 1000 Gy in a period of seconds or minutes. The DNA macromolecule breaks up, and cellular proteins coagulate.
    Instant death
  58. 1-10 Gy. Cell does not die, but permenetly losses it's ability to procreate.
    Reproductive death
  59. Cells die without attempting division during the interphase portion of the cells life cycle.
    Apoptosis
  60. Genetic death, cell dies after one or more divisions.
    Mitotic death
  61. .01 Gy, failure of the cell to start dividing on time.
    Mitotic delay
  62. Can be permentent or temporary.
    Interference with function
  63. Interacts with DNA macromolecule, may result in loss of genetic material.
    Chromosome breakage

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