Directly related to the dose recieved (late and early effects)
Acute radiation syndrome occurs when the whole body is exposed to _________________.
large does of ionizing radiation
What are the three systems affected by ARS?
hematopietic, GI, cerebrovascular
LD _________ for humans may be a more accurate estimate of lethal dose.
In cells exposed to sublethas doses ____% are repaired and _____& are irrepairable.
Effects that occur with in hours, days, and weeks, are called ____________.
early nonstochastic somatic
__________________ effects take months to years to manifest.
Late somatic effects
_________ risk is defined that a specific number of cancers will occur as a result of exposure to x-radiation.
_____________ risk describs the number of excess cancers rise as a natural incident.
At what point in a pregnancy is the fetus most radiosensitive?
__________ effects are biological effects on generation unborn.
_____________ are mutations in genes and DNA that occur at random as natural phenomenon.
Annual effective dose limit.
50 mSv (5 rem)
Cumulative effective dose limit.
10 mSv x age (1 rem x age)
Lens of eye annual dose limit.
150 mSv (15 rem)
Localized areas of the skin, hands, and feet annual dose limit.
500 mSv (50 rem)
Monthly embryo and fetus exposures.
.5 mSv (.05 rem)
Entire gestation of embryo and fetus exposures.
5 mSv (.5 rem)
Oversees the nuclear engergy industry.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
Enforce radiation protection regulations through their respective health departments.
Facilitates the development and enforcement of regulations pertaining to the control of radiation in the environment.
Enviromental Protection Agency (EPA)
Conducts an ongoing product of radiation control program, regulating the design and manufacture of electronic products, including x-ray equipment.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Functions as a monitoring agency in places of employment, predominantly in industry.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Evaluates information on biologic effects of radiation and provides radiation protection guidance through general recommendations on occupational and public dose limits.
Reviews regulations formulated by the ICRP and decides ways to include those recommendatins in U.S. radiation protection criteria.
Evaluates human and environment ionizing radiation exposure and derives radiation risk assessments from epidemiologic data and research conclusions; provides imformation to organizations such as the ICRP for evaluation.
Reviews studies of biologic effects of ionizing radiation and risk assessment and provides the information to organizations such as the ICRP for evaluation.
List and describe the four (4) stages of acute radiation syndrome.
1. Prodormal - occurs within hours after a whole body absorbed dose of 1 GY.
2. Latent - about one week, during which no visible symptoms occur.
3. Manifest illness - period when symptoms that affect the hematopietic, GI, and cerebrovascular system become visible.
4. Recovery or death.
Recieves 1000 Gy in a period of seconds or minutes. The DNA macromolecule breaks up, and cellular proteins coagulate.
1-10 Gy. Cell does not die, but permenetly losses it's ability to procreate.
Cells die without attempting division during the interphase portion of the cells life cycle.
Genetic death, cell dies after one or more divisions.
.01 Gy, failure of the cell to start dividing on time.
Can be permentent or temporary.
Interference with function
Interacts with DNA macromolecule, may result in loss of genetic material.