Module 3 - Anatomy & Physiology
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MO: Definition of anatomy
Anatomy is the study of the body's parts or its structure.
MO: Definition of physiology
- Physiology is the study of the body's function (how the parts work).
- STRUCTURE DETERMINES FUNCTION & FUNCTION DETERMINES STRUCTURE.
- Anatomy & physiology are inseparable.
MO: Six levels of structural organization within the body
- Chemical - we are chemical machines, wondrous containers of millions of chemical reactions. Body is composed of atoms bonded together in various formations.
- Cellular - cells are made up of many different types of molecules; they are the tiny motors that keep us running; they are the fundamental unit of life.
- Tissue - tissues are made up of cells that work together and perform the same function; four classes are connective, epithelial, muscle & nerve.
- Organ - an organ is a collection of one or more types of tissue that performs a specialized physiological function; eg., the stomach is made up of all four types of tissue and has the function of breaking down food.
- System - an (organ) system is a group of organs working together to achieve a specific function; eg., the digestive system consists of multiple organs that together all work to perform the greater function of digesting food and eliminating waste.
- Organism - all the systems of the body combined make up an organism or human being; the organism is continuously fine tuning itself to maintain or restore balance among its systems (homeostasis); anything that stresses the body (heat, cold, pain…) creates a need for adaptation, which means the cells don’t work at the optimal level.
MO: Definition of pH
- pH stands for Power of Hydrogen. It is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a given substance.
- It is a numerical value that represents the acidity or alkalinity of a substance.
- The more hydrogen ions (H+) the more acidic
- The more hydroxide ions (OH-) the more alkaline
- A balance of H+ and OH- is neutral.
MO: Describe the pH scale
- The scale for pH runs from 0 to 14, with 0 representing pure acid and 14 representing pure alkalinity.
- The pH scale is an exponential scale.
- Each pH unit represents a tenfold difference of the H+/OH- concentration.
- Eg., a pH of 2 is not twice as acidic as a pH of 4, it is 100 times more acidic than a pH of 4.
MO: Describe the anatomical position
In the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the arms are at the sides with the palms facing forward. Directional terms all relate to this position, whether subject is standing or lying down.
MO: Directional terms for anatomy
- Superior/Inferior (above/below) - the head is superior to the heart; the feet are inferior to the knees.
- Anterior/Posterior (front/back) - the stomach is anterior to the spine; the hamstring is posterior to the quadriceps.
- Medial/Lateral (toward middle/toward outside) - the heart is medial to the lungs; the arm is lateral to the chest.
- Proximal/Distal (close/distant to attachment point) - the shoulder is proximal to the elbow; the toes are distal to the knee.
- Superficial/Deep (surface/inside) - the ribs are superficial to the lungs; the stomach is deep to the skin.
- Contralateral (different side) - the right hand and the left should are contralateral.
- Ipsilateral (same side) - the right foot and right knee are ipsilateral.
- Unilateral (on one side) - the client felt unilateral pain in left inguinal ligament.
- Bilateral (on both sides) - the client felt bilateral pain in the feet.
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