understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
people who share a culture and a territory
the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society
the use of objective, systematic observations to test theories.
the application of the scientific approach to the social world.
why are history and biography both essential elements of the sociological perspective?
Because the group memberships or society influence the sociological perspective.
When did sociology originate?
the Industrial Revolution; mid 1800s
the scientific study of society and human behavior or the study of society
Who was Auguste Comte?
The credited founder of sociology
Who is Herbert Spencer?
Second founder of sociology
Who coined the term "survival of the fittest".
Marx's term for the struggle between capitalists and workers
Marx's term for capitalists, those who own the means of production
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
the degree to which members of a group or society feel united by shared values and other social bonds; also known as social cohesion.
What is social Darwinism?
survival of the fittest.
basic sociology aka pure sociology
sociological research for the purpose of making discoveries about life in human groups, not for making changes in those groups.
The use of sociology to solve problems- from the micro level of classroom interaction and family relationships to the macro level of crime and pollution
Applying sociology for the public good; especially the use of the sociological perspective to guide politicians and policy makers.
a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another.
A theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.
A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of various parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society's equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism.
A theoretical framework in which society is viewed as composed of groups that are competing for scarce resources
an examination of large scale patterns of society
an examination of small scale patterns of society, such as how the members of a group interact.
what people do when they are in one another's presence, but includes communications at a distance.
Communication without words through gestures, use of space, silence and so on.
a statement of how variables are expected to be related to one another, often according to predictions from a theory.
a factor thought to be significant for human behavior, which can vary or change from one case to another
the way in which a researcher measures a variable.
research method is also known as research _______.
one of seven procedures that sociologists use to collect data: surveys, participant observation, case studies, secondary analysis, documents, experiments, and unobtrusive measures.
the extent to which an operational definition measures what it is intended to measure
the extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results.
the collection of data by having people answer a series of questions
a target group to be studied
the individuals intended to represent the population to be studied.
a sample in which everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study.
stratified random sample
a sample from selected subgroups of the target population in which everyone in those subgroups has an equal chance of being included in research.
people who respond to a survey, either in interviews or by self-administered questionnaires.
questions that are followed by a list of possible answers to be selected by the respondent
questions that respondents answer in their own words.
a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying
What is an example of a closed-ended question?
participant observation or fieldwork
research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting.
an intensive analysis of a single event, situation, or individual.
the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers.
In its narrow sense, written sources that provide data; in its extended sense, archival material of any sort, including photographs, movies, CDs, DVDs, and so on
the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation.
the group of subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable
the group of subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable
a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable
a factor in an experiment that is changed by an independent variable.
ways of observing people so they do not know they are being studied
the extensive interconnections among nations
globalization of capitalism
capitalism becoming the globe's dominant economic system.
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next.
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry.
a group's ways of thinking and doing aka symbolic culture.
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life.
the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors.
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
another term for nonmaterial culture is.
something to which people attach meaning and then use to communicate with one another
the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another.
a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought.
Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
expectations of "right" behavior.
either expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them
a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material reward.
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence.
norms that are not strictly enforced
norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group
a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated.
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world.
a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
a society made up of many different groups
the values that are central of a group, those around which it builds a common identity.
values that together form a larger whole
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other.
a people's ideal values and norms; the goals held out for them
the norms and values that people actually follow; as opposed to ideal culture
a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group
a framework of thought that views human behavior as the result of natural selection and considers biological factors to be a fundamental cause of human behavior.
in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools.
the emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life
Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
the spread of cultural traits from one group to another; includes both material and nonmaterial cultural traits.
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations.