it14spr101.40c10 11 12.txt

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  2. A group of organic chemicals that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Lipids include a number of compounds, such as fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that have vital functions in cells and are important constituents of cell membranes.
  3. The building blocks of fat molecules.
  4. Another type of building blocks of fat molecules.
  5. Each carbon atom binds as many hydrogen atoms as possible and is thus saturated with hydrogen atoms.
  6. Have one or more double bonds between carbon atoms.
  7. Four connected rings of carbon atoms, widely distributed in the body with a variety of functions; includes cholesterol, sex hormones, and certain hormones of the adrenal glands
  8. Two fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group bound to a glycerol molecule (may also include a nitrogen-containing molecule attached to the phosphate group). Used as structural components in cell membranes; large amounts are in the liver and parts of the nervous system.
  9. Three fatty acid molecules bound to a glycerol molecule, most common lipid in the body; stored in fat tissue as an energy supply; fat tissue also provides insulation beneath the skin.
  10. This phosphate-containing part is soluble in water, and forms the “head” of the molecule, whereas the fatty acid portion is insoluble in water (hydrophobic) and forms a “tail”.
  11. The fatty acid portion is insoluble in water and forms a “tail”.
  12. The human body has more than 200,000 types of proteins. Some are structural materials, energy sources, and chemical messengers.
  13. catalysts in living systems. That is, they speed specific chemical reactions without being consumed.
  14. The building blocks of proteins.
  15. Proteins have complex three-dimensional shapes, yet they are assembled from simple chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds.
  16. the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain. The primary structure may range from fewer than 100 to more than 5,000 amino acids.
  17. the polypeptide chain either forms a spring like coil (alpha helix) or folds
  18. back and forth on itself (beta-pleated sheet) or folds into other shapes. Secondary structure arises from hydrogen bonding.
  19. Hydrogen bonding and even covalent bonding between atoms in different parts of a polypeptide can impart another, larger level of folding.
  20. In some proteins, several polypeptide chains are connected in a fourth level, to form a very large structure.
  21. the secondary and tertiary structures of a protein’s conformation.
  22. Amino acid molecules have an amino group at one end and a carboxyl group at the other end.
  23. All fatty acid molecules include a carboxyl group at the end of a chain of carbon atoms.
  24. bonded to a hydrogen atom and to another group of atoms called a side chain or R group (“R” may be thought of as the “Rest of the molecule”)
  25. The "R" group, or the "rest of the molecule," is what makes each amino acid unique.
  26. A nucleic acid molecule consists of one (RNA) or two (DNA) polynucleotide chains.
  27. The very large and complex nucleic acids include atoms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, which form building blocks.
  28. (ribonucleic acid) is composed of nucleotides that have ribose sugar. RNA is a single polynucleotide chain.
  29. (deoxyribonucleic acid) has deoxyribose sugar. DNA is a double polynucleotide chain wound into a double helix.
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it14spr101.40c10 11 12.txt
vocab chap 2 topics 10-12
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