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what are 4 types of simple carbohydrates?
What are glucose polymers?
-chains of about 5 glucose molecules
where are the glucose polymers usually found in?
in sports drinks
What is glycemic index?
the body's increase in blood glucose after consuming a certain food
What are high glycemic foods good for?
good during or after exercise
What are low glycemic foods good for?
What reaction do high glycemic foods create? (3)
-enter bloodstream quickly
-cause blood glucose to rise higher
-blood glucose stay elevted longer
WHAT reaction do low-moderate glycemic foods create?
enter the bloodstream slowly
What 3 factors dictate the required amount and type of carbohydrates?
-freq, intensity and duration of workout, fitness level of the individual
-availability of carb reserves
-type and amount of carb provided during exercise
What 3 places can carbs used during exercise come from?
-muscle and glycogen stores
-endogenous production of glucose by the liver
-carbohydrate consumed during exercise
***all of the above eventually contribute in one way or another to it
Sources of carb during exercise) WHere is the body's primary carbohydrate reserves?
muscle and liver glycogen
Sources of carb during exercise) Around how many calories does muscle and liver glycogen provide?
*depends on what they ate prior and size of the individual
What contains the highest percentage of glycogen?
What does the liver glycogen maintain?
the body's blood glucose overnight when fasting
How many grams and calories does liver glycogen have?
60-120 grams or 250-500 calories
What is the absolute amount of glycogen that a muscle can store?
is the breakdown of liver glycogen
What else does glycogenolysis do?
helps maintain blood glucose levels
body's way of creating glucose from other sources
What is gluconeogenesis imporatnt in?
it is a major source of glucose for working muscles during prolonged exercise
What are the 4 substrates for gluconeogenesis?
What do the substrates of gluconeogenesis do?
they are transported to the liver for glucose production
substrates) What cycle produces glucose from lactate?
Where does lactate primarily come from?
the metabolism of glucose to lactate through glycolysis
substrates) which is the primary amino acid that is released by working muscle?
substrates) how is alanine formed?
combining nitrogen and pyruvate
substrates) What happens after alanine is broken down in the liver?
pyruvate is used as a substrate
substrates) Where does the pyruvte come from?
it may leak from working cells into the blood
substrates) How is glycerol made?
adipose tissue or muscle triglycerides are broken down
* they yield 3 fatty acids and glycerol