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  1. what are 4 types of simple carbohydrates?
    - mono



    -glucose polymers
  2. What are glucose polymers?
    -chains of about 5 glucose molecules
  3. where are the glucose polymers usually found in?
    in sports drinks
  4. What is glycemic index?
    the body's increase in blood glucose after consuming a certain food
  5. What are high glycemic foods good for?
    good during or after exercise
  6. What are low glycemic foods good for?
  7. What reaction do high glycemic foods create? (3)
    -enter bloodstream quickly

    -cause blood glucose to rise higher

    -blood glucose stay elevted longer
  8. WHAT reaction do low-moderate glycemic foods create?
    enter the bloodstream slowly
  9. What 3 factors dictate the required amount and type of carbohydrates?
    -freq, intensity and duration of workout, fitness level of the individual

    -availability of carb reserves

    -type and amount of carb provided during exercise
  10. What 3 places can carbs used during exercise come from?
    -muscle and glycogen stores

    -endogenous production of glucose by the liver

    • -carbohydrate consumed during exercise
    • *blood glucose

    ***all of the above eventually contribute in one way or another to it
  11. Sources of carb during exercise) WHere is the body's primary carbohydrate reserves?
    muscle and liver glycogen
  12. Sources of carb during exercise) Around how many calories does muscle and liver glycogen provide?
    • 800-2000
    • *depends on what they ate prior and size of the individual
  13. What contains the highest percentage of glycogen?
    liver glycogen
  14. What does the liver glycogen maintain?
    the body's blood glucose overnight when fasting
  15. How many grams and calories does liver glycogen have?
    60-120 grams or 250-500 calories
  16. What is the absolute amount of glycogen that a muscle can store?
    200-500 grams
  17. Glycogenolysis:
    is the breakdown of liver glycogen
  18. What else does glycogenolysis do?
    helps maintain blood glucose levels
  19. Gluconeogenesis:
    body's way of creating glucose from other sources
  20. What is gluconeogenesis imporatnt in?
    it is a major source of glucose for working muscles during prolonged exercise
  21. What are the 4 substrates for gluconeogenesis?
    • -lactate
    • -alanine
    • -glycerol
    • -pyruvate
  22. What do the substrates of gluconeogenesis do?
    they are transported to the liver for glucose production
  23. substrates) What cycle produces glucose from lactate?
    cori cycle
  24. Where does lactate primarily come from?
    the metabolism of glucose to lactate through glycolysis
  25. substrates) which is the primary amino acid that is released by working muscle?
  26. substrates) how is alanine formed?
    combining nitrogen and pyruvate
  27. substrates) What happens after alanine is broken down in the liver?
    pyruvate is used as a substrate
  28. substrates) Where does the pyruvte come from?
    it may leak from working cells into the blood
  29. substrates) How is glycerol made?
    • adipose tissue or muscle triglycerides are broken down
    • * they yield 3 fatty acids and glycerol
Card Set:
2014-01-22 03:28:16
Sports Nut

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