Pharmacology - Vancomycin Bacitracin and Streptogramins 2

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kyleannkelsey
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257869
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Pharmacology - Vancomycin Bacitracin and Streptogramins 2
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2014-01-22 10:02:35
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Pharmacology Vancomycin Bacitracin Streptogramins
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Pharmacology - Vancomycin Bacitracin and Streptogramins 2
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Pharmacology - Vancomycin Bacitracin and Streptogramins 2
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  1. What is VRSA?
    Vancomycin resistant staph aureus
  2. What would you use to treat VRSA?
    Telavancin
  3. What is GISA?
    Glycopeptide-intermedietely resistant staph aureus
  4. What is VISA?
    Vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus
  5. What is VRE?
    Vancomycin resistant enterococci
  6. If you have a GISA, VISA or VRSA, how would you adjust your dose of vancomycin?
    Increase dose as you increase the resistance from GISA to VISA to VRSA
  7. What is the MOA of Bacitracin?
    Inhibits cell wall synthesis, prevents dephosphorylation of C55 (prevents tying of cell wall to membrane)
  8. Is Bacitracin a narrow or broad spectrum antibiotic?
    Narrow, only G+
  9. Is Bacitracin used orally?
    No, only topically
  10. How is Bacitracin administered?
    Topically
  11. Bacitracin is used for what therapeutically?
    Ocular and topical infections
  12. What is Bacitracin often combined with?
    Polymixcin B and Neomycin
  13. Is bacitracin OTC or prescription?
    OTC
  14. Why is Bacitracin given in combination?
    Prevent resistance
  15. What is Fosfomycin used for?
    Usually UTIs
  16. What is the MOA of Fosfomycin?
    Inhibits cell wall synthesis
  17. How is Fosfomycin given?
    Orally or IV
  18. How is Fosfomycin excreted?
    Unchanged in the urine
  19. What is the t1/2 of fosfomycin?
    4 hours
  20. Is Fosfomycin bacteriocidal or static?
    Cidal
  21. How does Fosfomycin enter cells?
    By the glycerolphosphate or glucose-6-phosphate recognition systems
  22. Fosfomycin is effective against what bacteria?
    E.coli, Enterococcus faecalis and faecium
  23. Why is Fosfomycin excellent for UTIs?
    Excreted unchanged in the urine
  24. When would you use a streptogramin?
    To treat serious resistant infections, VRE and for certain staph and strep infection like bacteremia and pneumonia
  25. What is the MOA of streptogramins?
    Inhibit ribosomal protein synthesis
  26. What are the two important streptogramins?
    Quinupristin and dalfopristin
  27. What is Synercic?
    Combination therapy of Quinupristin and Dalfopristin
  28. What are streptogramin A's?
    Made of polyunsaturated macrolactones
  29. What are streptogramin B's?
    cyclic peptides
  30. Is Quinupristin a streptogramin A or B?
    B
  31. Is dalfopristin a sterptogramin A or B?
    A
  32. (True/False) Quinupristin and dalfopristin are semi-synthetic derivatives that are water soluble.
    True
  33. If you use Quinupristin and dalfopristin together how do they differ from when they are used individually?
    They are Bacteriocidal, alone they are static
  34. Are streptogramins a first choice antibiotic?
    No
  35. How are streptogramins administered?
    IV
  36. What major DDI do you need to watch out for with streptogramins?
    CYP3A4 inhibitor, so it increases the con. Of cyclosporine A, midazolam, nifedipine and others
  37. What are the major adverse effects of Steptogramins?
    Arthritis, myalgia, hyperbilirubinemia, hepatic toxicity and superinfections
  38. How are streptogramins excreted?
    Via the liver
  39. What is the t1/2 of streptogramins?
    1-2 hours
  40. Linozolid (Zyvox) has what MOA?
    Inhibits initiation of protein synthesis
  41. What type of drug is Linezolid?
    Oxazolidinone
  42. Is Linezolid absorbed well through the GI?
    Yes, 100%
  43. How is Linezolid metabolized?
    By oxidation
  44. How is Linezolid excreted?
    Feces and urine
  45. What type of bacteria does Linezolid treat?
    G+ aerobic
  46. What are the indications for Linezolid?
    VRE, hospital acquired pneumonia and MRSA
  47. What are the adverse effects fo Linezolid?
    Diarrhea, thrombocytopenia, nausea, serotonin syndrome (if person is taking an SSRI) and vomiting
  48. What is the MOA for Daptomycin?
    Binds and depolarizes the membrane, releases intracellular ions
  49. Is Daptomycin bactericidal or static?
    Cidal
  50. What is the spectrum of daptomycin?
    Similar to Vanco (narrow), strep, staph and enterococci
  51. How is daptomycin given?
    IV
  52. What is the t1/2 of daptomycin?
    9 hours
  53. What is daptomycin indicated for?
    Skin and wound infections
  54. What are the adverse effects of daptomycin?
    GI issues, dizziness, HA, muscle damage (rare)
  55. Does Daptomycin work on G+ or G- bacteria?
    G+
  56. Why can you get Muscle damage from daptomycin?
    B/c of its depolarization action

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