Evolutionism - E. B. Tylor, Lewis Henry Morgan - Later cultures were, in some "objective" sense, superior to earlier cultures. As human cultures evolved, they passed through a series of stages.
Functionalism - Bronislaw Malinowski, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown - social and cultural features should be explained mainly by their useful functions to the people and to the society , the benefits the confer on individuals and groups.
Historical Particularism - Franz Boas (Father of American Anthropology) - Each culture has own separate past and "one of a kind" culture, each culture affected by almost everything that had happened to it in the past, because different things had happened to each culture in the past, different things happened to different cultures, each culture is unique.
- Theoretical Orientations
- Ecological Anthropology
- Holistic Approach
- Preparations for Fieldwork