Pharmacology - Quinolones, Urinary Antiseptics and Metronidazole 1

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kyleannkelsey
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257871
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Pharmacology - Quinolones, Urinary Antiseptics and Metronidazole 1
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2014-01-26 19:18:08
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Pharmacology Quinolones Urinary Antiseptics Metronidazole
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Pharmacology - Quinolones, Urinary Antiseptics and Metronidazole 1
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  1. Naladixic acid (the first of quinolones) has effects in what part of the body?
    Urinary tract
  2. What is the MOA of quinolones?
    Inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV (which are different than in eukaryotic cells)
  3. What is the action of DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV?
    Nick DNA and reconnect the strands
  4. What are the older flouroquinolones?
    Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Ofloxacin
  5. 1st generation/older/ 2nd gen flouroquinolones treat what type of bacteria?
    Gram - and aerobic bacteria
  6. Which is the most potent Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin and Ofloxacin?
    Ciprofloxacin
  7. What are the newer flouroquinolone?
    Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin and Gemifloxacin
  8. What are newer fluoroquinolones used for mainly?
    Respiratory infections
  9. How does the spectrum of newer flouroquinolones differ from older ones?
    Increased G+ activity, can treat Strep pneumoniae
  10. Which is the most commonly used of the newer Flouroquinolines?
    Levofloxacin
  11. What unique spectrum does Moxifloxacin have?
    Treats anaerobes
  12. Which of the newer flouroquinolones are not ideal for UTIs and why?
    Moxifloxacin and Gemifloxacin, because they are metabolized in the liver before they are excreted
  13. Are fluoroquinolones absorbed orally?
    Yes
  14. Would probenecid effect the excretion of fluoroquinolones?
    Yes
  15. Where do fluoroquinolones concentrate at?
    Urine, kidney, prostate, feces and lungs
  16. What is the t1/2 of ciprofloxacin?
    3-5 hours ( shortest of all flouroquinolines)
  17. Why is naladixic acid a good choice for UTIs?
    It only concentrates in the kidneys, nowhere else
  18. Where does Nalidixic acid only concentrate?
    In the kidneys
  19. What functional group do Levofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin have that enhances their antimicrobial potency over naladixic acid?
    Flourine and piperizine structure
  20. The fluorine on Flouroquinolones increases the potency mainly against what bacterial group?
    G-
  21. What is a major side effect of Flouroquinolones?
    Phototoxicity, due to deposition in the skin
  22. Gemifloxacin has what major adverse reaction?
    Phototoxicity
  23. What organisms are sensitive to flouroquinolones?
    Atypical bacteria that include: Mycoplasma pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, e. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella species, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staph aureus ( sans MRSA)
  24. Are flouroquinolones a first choice drug?
    No
  25. Why can Flouroquinolones treat bacteria that penicillins and cephalosporins, etc. cannot?
    They affect the DNA, so they do not need bacteria with normal cell walls to be effective
  26. Do G+ or G- usually cause UTIs?
    G-
  27. Do G+ or G- usually cause travelers diarrhea?
    G-
  28. Are flouroquinolones a good choice for Neisseria gonorrhoae?
    Can treat, but lots of resistance is popping up
  29. Do flouroquinolones have activity against Enterococci?
    No
  30. Which flouroquinolones can treat Pseudomoas aeruginosa?
    Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin
  31. Which flouroquinolones can treat Anaerobes (Bacteroides)?
    Moxifloxacin
  32. Which flouroquinolones can treat Streptococci?
    Levofloxacin and moxifloxacin

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