ToP Ch5

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ToP Ch5
2014-01-22 14:21:47
theories personality
chapter 5
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  1. Hypercomptetitiveness
    indiscriminate need to win at all costs in order to feel superior

    (Hypercompetitive parents tend to treat their children poorly, giving rise to neurosis
  2. Traits of hypercompetitiveness
    • -hostile
    • -dogmatic
    • -arrogant
    • -aggressive
    • -derisive toward others
  3. Characteristics of hypercompetitives
    • -characterized by primary psychopathy: aggressiveness, callousness, and lack of remorse
    • -not characterized by secondary psychopathy: excessive guilt, lack of clarity about goals
    • -leads to lying, cheating, plagiarism
  4. competition avoidance
    need to check ruthless ambition and excessive competitive strivings because of extreme fear of losing the affection and approval of others due to success or failure in competition
  5. characteristics of competition avoiders
    • -minimize their chances for success by belittling themselves
    • -feel embarrassed or humiliated by competitive defeat
    • -engage in self-handicapping: giving plausible excuses for poor performance in order to protect one's self-esteem
  6. personal development competitiveness
    • an attitude in which the primary focus is not primarily on the outcome
    • (i.e., winning), but rather more on the enjoyment and mastery of the
    • task
    • -individuals are more concerned with self-discovery, self-improvement, and task mastery than with comparisons with others
  7. personal development competitors
    want strongly to win and be successful, but not at the expense of others
  8. attitudes and behaviors of hypercompetitive parents that cause disturbed relationships
    • –Direct or indirect domination
    • –Indifference and erratic behavior
    • –Lack of respect for individual needs and real guidance
    • –Disparaging attitudes
    • –Lack of reliable warmth
    • –Having to take sides in parental disagreements
    • –Isolation from other children
    • –Injustice and discrimination
    • –Unkept promises and hostile atmosphere
  9. basic anxiety
    poor treatment by parents that makes a person feel isolated and helpless in a potentially hostile world, leading to neurosis
  10. characteristics of basic anxiety
    • -neurotic need for affection and approval
    • -neurotic need for partner to control one's life
    • -neurotic need to restrict one's activities
    • -neurotic need for power
    • -neurotic need to exploit others
    • -neurotic need for social recognition and prestige
    • -neurotic need for personal admiration
    • -neurotic need for personal achievement
    • -neurotic need for self-sufficiency and independence
    • -neurotic need for perfection and unassailability
  11. Horney's 3 basic neurotic trends
    • compliant type
    • aggressive type
    • detached type
  12. compliant type
    • individuals who cope with feelings of basic anxiety by
    • indiscriminately seeking the approval and affection of others through excessive
    • conformity; such individuals move toward people, a trend that protects them
    • against basic anxiety by self-effacement and obliteration
  13. aggressive type
    individuals who protect themselves against feelings of insecurity by exploiting others in order to feel superior; such individuals adjust by moving against people, a trend that seeks to control basic anxiety through domination and exploitation of others
  14. detached type
    • individuals who protect themselves by continual avoidance of
    • others; such individuals move away from people, a trend that protects the
    • person against basic anxiety by utter detachment and extreme self-sufficiency
  15. basic conflict in neurosis
    turmoil created within neurotics because the three major trends are incompatible with one another
  16. humanistic view of development
    each person is special and has a unique set of potentials that will flourish under wise parental guidance
  17. real self
    unique set of potentials for constructive growth within each person
  18. idealized self
    defensive identification of neurotics with their idealized images
  19. tyranny of the shoulds
    moral imperatives that drive neurotics to accept nothing less than perfection for themselves
  20. externalization
    • tendency of neurotics to experience internal processes as if they occurred outside the self and to hold external factors responsible for their difficulties
    • -involves projection: tendency to attribute one's own failings and shortcomings to others
  21. seven defenses used by neurotics to keep the idealized self intact
    • blind spts
    • compartmentalization
    • rationalization
    • excessive control
    • arbitrary rightness
    • elusiveness
    • cynicism
  22. blind spots
    painful experiences are denied or ignored because they are at variance with the idealized self
  23. compartmentalization
    alleviation of tensions by separating beliefs and actions
  24. rationalization
    person wards off anxiety by offering plausible, but inaccurate, excuses for his or her conduct
  25. excessive control
    person exercises willpower to keep emotional impulses under control
  26. arbitrary rightness
    conviction that one is always right
  27. elusiveness
    person refuses to take a position on anything so that he or she can never be proven wrong and criticized or ridiculed by others
  28. cynicism
    person claims to believe in nothing so that he or she cannot be hurt or disappointed by others