Autumn Term English Exam

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Anonymous
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257918
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Autumn Term English Exam
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2014-01-22 15:03:15
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University Nottingham
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  1. Arbitrariness
    No link between form and meaning in spite of onomatopoeia
  2. Phonaesthetics
    The Euphony or Cacophony of sounds
  3. Euphony
    Pleasant sound
  4. Cacophony
    Unpleasant sounds
  5. Duality of patterning
    Finite sounds can create infinite sounds when combined
  6. Displacement
    Language can refer to past, future and abstract
  7. Productivity
    No limit to the potential human utterances
  8. Reflexivity
    Language can discuss language
  9. Stimulus Freedom
    Language conveys emotion
  10. Linguistics
    Divides language output into systematic categories
  11. Psychology
    Examines how the mind shapes communication
  12. Spatial Resolution
    HQ Images of the brain
  13. Temporal Resolution
    Record the neural process
  14. Electropsychological
    • Neural activity produces measurable changes in voltage
    • +Temporal Resolution
    • -Spatial Resolution
  15. EEG
    Electroencephalography
  16. Haemodynamic
    • Maps change in bloodflow
    • +Spatial Resolution
    • -Temporal Resolution
  17. fMRI
    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (measures oxygen)
  18. Cognitive Linguistics
    Memory, perception and categorisation in relation to language
  19. Neurolinguistics
    Linguistics in relation to the mind's physical structure
  20. Cognitive Science
    Linguistics, psychology, AI, computer science, philosophy and anthropology
  21. Lateralisation
    Brain Hemispheres focus on different tasks. Reversed in Left handed people
  22. Lateralisation- 6-12 months
    Familiar words elicit activity between LH Parietal and Temporal lobes
  23. Lateralisation- 12-18 months
    • Familiar words create activity between LH Temporal and Frontal lobes
    • Link between auditory, semantic and motor patterns
  24. Lateralisation- 2-3 years
    Increased Lateralisation
  25. Lateralisation- 4-5 years
    Adult level lateralisation
  26. Broca's Aphasia
    Slow, content focused speech, poor syntax
  27. Anomia
    Struggles with words in a specific lexical domain
  28. Wernicke's Aphasia
    Poor comprehension, non-sensical speech
  29. Research- Phonology
    Listening, watching, 3 forced choices
  30. Research- Morphology
    • Priming and lexical decision
    • +--->cross--->CROSSING
  31. Research- Lexical Processing
    Gating and eyetracking
  32. Research- Semantics
    Picture/Word inference task
  33. Research- Syntax
    Judgements and eyetracking
  34. Research- Pragmatics
    Event Related Potential
  35. Reading Stages- 1
    Linguistic guessing- Words as pictures, requires context
  36. Reading Stages- 2
    Discrimination Net Guessing- Refined guesses, cues inform meaning
  37. Reading Stages- 3
    Sequential Decoding- Grapheme/Phoneme relationship established
  38. Reading Stages- 4
    Hierarchical Decoding- Skilled reading
  39. Writing Stages- 1
    Prephonemic- Scribbles with meaning
  40. Writing Stages- 2
    Early Phonemic- Basic letter shapes, understanding of Left to Right
  41. Writing Stages- 3
    Letter Name- Pictures and letters represent words
  42. Writing Stages- 4
    Transitional- Focuses on significant topics and consideration of audience
  43. Bilabial
    Upper and Lower Lips
  44. Labio-Dental
    Lower lip, Upper Incisors
  45. Dental
    Tip of tongue, incisors
  46. Alveolar
    Tongue to Alveolar ridge
  47. Palatal
    Front of tongue, hard palate
  48. Velar
    Back of tongue, soft palate
  49. Glottal
    Space between vocal chords and glottis closes then releases
  50. Plosive
    Airflow stops then releases
  51. Fricative
    Air forced through narrow constriction
  52. Affricate
    Two articulators close and release
  53. Nasal
    Air through nose
  54. Approximant
    Tongue to ridge, air to side of mouth
  55. Lateral Approximant
    Two articulators close together
  56. Free Morphemes- Content
    • Members of Word classes (verb noun etc)
    • Carry text meaning
    • Infrequent in text
  57. Free Morphemes- Function
    • Determiners, pronouns etc.
    • Bind text together
    • Typically short
  58. Bound Morphemes- Inflectional
    Adds information and signals relationships e.g. lived
  59. Bound Morphemes- Deivational
    Changes word class or meaning e.g. active+ ity= Activity
  60. Non-Remote+ Factual
    Present
  61. Non-Remote+ Non- Factual
    Future
  62. Remote+ Factual
    Past
  63. Remote+ Non-Factual
    Hypothetical
  64. Cognitive
    Abstract thought
  65. Relational
    Relationships
  66. Punctual
    Doing
  67. Durative
    Activity
  68. Durative Process
    Physical Change
  69. Progressive
    Be+ (Present Participle/Verb ing)
  70. Perfect
    Have+ (Past Participle/ verb en)
  71. Dynamic Perfect
    Completed activity in retrospect
  72. Stative Perfect
    Pre-existing state in retrospect
  73. Dynamic Progressive
    Ongoing activity, internal perspective
  74. Stative Progressive
    Temporary state, internal perspective
  75. Describer
    Attributes a quality to the head word
  76. Classifier
    Indicates the category of the head word
  77. Epistemic Modality
    What is known, deduced, or concluded
  78. Strong Positioning
    Certainty
  79. Soft Positioning
    Possibility
  80. Modal auxiliaries- Ability
    'You can'
  81. Modal auxiliaries- Permission
    'Can you'
  82. Modal auxiliaries-Possibility
    'Things can get'
  83. Modal auxiliaries-Obligation
    'I must'
  84. Modal auxiliaries-Conclusion
    'There must have'
  85. Deontic Modality
    What is known or deduced in relation to status

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