*note - glue joint to be under pressure for 7 hours
what effects do temp have on glue
cure time and joint strength
are mineral streaks OK
if no rot is present
are knots ok
yes, within specfications
why is compressed wood NOT ok
serious loss of strength
why is it necessary to inspect stains
determine level of decay
why are bushings used in wood
prevent crushing the wood grain
results of low glue pressure
thick and weak joint
type of joint used in structural wood
*note - scarf cut is 12 to 1
Why does the strength of a beveled scarf depend on the accuracy of cut?
Glue area is reduced if bevels are not the same.
Always splice and reinforce plywood with?
Same type plywood.
Types of fabric are?
Organic fabrics are?
Synthetic fibers are?
Heat shrinkable synthetic (nylon, orlon, dacron)
What determines the quality of fabric and strength requirements?
What strength should be used in recovering?
Equal in quality and strength.
Direction along the length.
Purpose of reinforcing tape?
Prevent stitching cord from cutting fabric.
Types of machine-sewn seams are?
What structure prep for doped fabric?
Dope proof with paint or tape.
Where is surface tape used?
What is the advantage of the envelope method of covering?
Most sewing is done by machines.
Where are anti-tear strips recommended?
VNE of more than 250 MPH
How are vent and drain holes reinforced?
Plastic, aluminum, or brass grommets
How do you test fabric?
Punch test or lab test if results are marginal
Type of fabric not affected by moisture or mildew is?
What is the Selvage edge for?
Edge woven to prevent raveling
What rib lacing spacing is used when original is not known?
Chart AC 43.13 1B
Tie off knot
Modified seine used on all but starting the stitch.
In which direction is the warp and selvage applied?
Parallel to flight TSO # on selvage edge.
Common types are?
Thin zinc chromate with?
Types of dope?
Why not use dope over paint or enamel
Tends to soften
Too much drier?
Thin and brittle film causing cracking and peeling.
Purpose of zinc chromate?
Corrosion resistance and base for paint.
Advantage of butyrate?
Safety using solvents
Wear a respirator.
Methods of application
What system is compatible with epoxy top coats?
Any in good condition.
Cause for dust (cover spray)?
Pressure and distance.
Sags and runs?
Too much paint and bad prep.
Viscosity, gun setting, air, and distance.
Clouding or blooming of the film
Cause of blushing?
Moisture in air supply, adverse humidity, temp up and down.
Too high temperature when applying dope causes?
What areas must be protected during stripping?
Purpose for touch ups is to?
Control surface balance after paint?
What is done with the stem of a friction lock rivet?
Trimmed flush with head.
Example of self-plugging rivet
Cherry lock, cherrymax, or Huck.
Tool to install Cherrylock?
Hand or air puller.
Proper rivet shop head?
Width = 1 1/2 diameter of rivet shank / height = 1/2 of diameter of rivet shank
What is bonded with honeycomb construction?
Laminar (two metal sides bonded to honeycomb)
Materials used in bonded honeycomb?
Nylon and cotton cloth (Jep 3-34)
What causes the delaminating of honeycomb?
What is potting compound used for?
Fill holes in honeycomb (NOTE: 1" Max)
What is done with the damaged area of honeycomb?
It must be removed.
What causes crazing?
How do you drill plex?
Back up with wood, feed drill slowly.
What should be done to twist drills used to drill plex?
60° tip angle
Zero rake on cutting edge
Back lip angle increased to 12° to 15°
NOTE: ASA says 140°
Calculations made when bending sheet metal?
Bend allowance and set back.
What must be done where two bends intersect?
Relief holes drilled.
What type of weathering damage may be found on aluminum aircraft?
Methods of forming sheet metal are?
Factors of setback are?
Bend radius and thickness
Purpose of lightning holes is to?
What is a joggle?
Offset formed to allow for clearance.
Total length of a rivet installation is?
Grip length and 1 1/2 times shank diameter.
Proper material in repair is?
Same as original.
Single row spacing and ED edge (distance) of protruding heads is?
ED is 2d
Spacing is 3d
Describe rivet head markings.
2017 raised dot
2024 raised double dash
2117 recessed dot
5056 raised cross
7075 three raised dashes
Types of alloys are?
6xx Magnesium & Silicon
9xx unused series
Dimpling vs. countersink?
Determined by material thickness
Most common rivet failure is?
REplace a 2024 with 2117
For 5/32 or use next larger size of 2117
NOTES: Bolts with a triangle is close tolerance, Dash is a corrosion resistant bolt.
Preferred method for welding magnesium
Gas shielded arc
Safety hazard with magnesium
If ignited, hard to extinguish
Why is flux needed for silver soldering?
Chemically clean base metal
Type of flame for silver solder is?
Dented tube at a cluster?
Formed steel patch
Insert tight sleeve into tube
What are three types of welding
How do you get a soft flame and not lose heat
Larger tip size and adjust pressure
What is common method for welding aluminum
Gas shielded arc
Which valve should be turned off first
how control expansion
tack weld along joint
precaution when completed
turn off valves, relieve all pressure
aluminum alloy heat treated parts after welding
insufficient penetration in welding causes what
type of welding that causes less buckling and warping than gas
Gas shielded arc welding, also known as Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), Manual Metal Arc (MMA) Welding, Flux-shielded Arc Welding, or informally as stick welding
arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode coated in flux to lay the weld.
An electric current in the form of either alternating current or direct current from a welding power supply is used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined.
As the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which serve to protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination.
advantages of gas shield arc welding
stronger, more ductile, corrosion resistant
size of torch tip determines
amount of heat not temp
*note - flame for aluminum is soft and neutral
**note - flame for stainless steel slightly carburizing
Servo trim tab
auxiliary control aids pilot in movement of control surfaces
balance trim tab
auxiliary control aids in movement of primary control surfaces by keeping a direct proportion of deflection to the aerodynamic load imposed on the surface.
4 high lift devices
leading edge flaps
3 mechanical methods to move flight controls
the cyclic pitch purpose is
changes pitch of each main rotor blade
collective does what
varies lift simultaneously
compensates for torque
controls tail rotor
primary flight controls are
secondary flight controls are
auxiliary flight controls
axes of flight are
where do cables break most
what must be known before using a rigging chart
cable tension regulators do what
vortex generators are
boundary layer air control
pulls high energy air down to prevent airflow from separating from the airfoil
why lock control surfaces
primary tools used to check travel
A&P signoff on
100 hour inspections
when may a mechanic perform an annual inspection
when he/she becomes and IA
When is an Annual due
12 calendar months
a checklist for 100 hour
any checklist that meets or exceeds 43 appendix D.
Record entry info after 100 hour (FAR)?
Who may supervise a progressive inspection?
Certified repair station
When must a part 91 aircraft use 100 hour?
When used for hire and/or flight training.
When is the first 100 due after discontinuance of progressive?
100 hours after last complete inspection of the progressive.
Does a progressive plane need a 100 hour if used for hire?
A&P limits on props?
No major repairs.
Out of annual aircraft flight, what must you do?
Permit, ferry permit, or special airworthiness certificate
Rating needed for complete 100 hour
FAR that requires 100 hour inspection is?
Part 91 409b
Log book entries for 100 hour?
What is the necessary info on electrical system?
Who must approve radios installed with an STC (supplemental Type Certificate)?
Can you overfly 100 hour?
Yes, not more than 10 hours.
If 100 hours overflown?
102 next due 98.
Where do you get an approval for progressive inspection?
FSDO (Flight Standar District Office)
Is a turbine run up due on 100 hour?
What is used to inflate strut?
Dry air or nitrogen
What is done a regular inspection of a strut?
Inspect for cleanliness
Evidence of damage
Check for proper extension
Purpose of torque links are to
Keep gear pointed straight
Power sources used for retraction are
Hydraulic and electric (9-14)
Steering type on small aircraft
Mechanical links from pedals (9-11)
What prevents nose wheel vibration?
Types of brake systems are
Purpose of de-booster cylinders are
Reduce pressure and increase volume (9-25)
What do you do before brake inspections?
What prevents a split wheel from leaking?
O-ring seal (9-6)
Most important function fore tire life is what?
Effects of under-inflation?
Rapid or uneven wear/creep or slip during braking
When should gear retraction be performed
Annual, component replacement, hard landings
Indication of excessive heat on bearing is?
Purpose of anti-skid is?
Stop without skidding
Purpose of fusible plug is?
Relieve pressure and prevent blow out (9-10)
Methods of brake bleeding
Methods for transmitting control movements in large aircraft?
Nose wheel centerings cans or external track?
Keep wheels in line when retracting into hub
Types of hydraulic fluid are (8-7)
Phosphate ester (Skydrol)
Mineral color is
Vegetable 7644 blue
phosphate ester (skydrol) light purple
Skydrol (phosphate ester) can?
Soften, damage, or peel vinyl, enamel, lacquer, oil base paints
Feature in pumps to prevent damage in case of seizure?
Shear section in shaft
How to minimize contamination during component change?
What could cause a filter to bypass
NOTE: FAA rule filter must bypass if it becomes clogged.
Power sources of hydraulic pressure in aircraft are?
Engine driven pumps
Electrically driven pumps
Methods of pressurization on reservoirs are?
How does a gear type pump operate
A 2 gear type pump driven by engine by upper gear with splined shaft. Fluid is trapped by gear teeth and pump wall at 15 PSI
Two types of engine drive pumps are
Constant delivery (8-23)
Variable delivery (8-25)
Purpose of a pressure regulator is to
Maintain pressure and unload pump (8-25)
Purpose of pressure relief valve is to
Limit pressure and prevent damage
What is used to supplement pumps?
Different types of accumulators?
Purpose for pneumatic systems (drives) is?
Sources of pneumatic power are
What happens if excessive pressure builds up in a pneumatic system?
Relief valve bleeds air to atmosphere
Restrictors do what?
Control air flow.
Why purge pneumatics?
Remove moisture and contamination
What steps to do before disassembling accumulators?
MUST dump pre-load air pressure!
Two groups of independent cabin compressors are
Principal control of pressure systems is
Method used by some turbines
Roots blower is
engine driven compressor
what controller will change the position of the outflow valve?
cabin pressure controller
methods of providing heat on reciprocating aircraft
gas combustion heater
exhaust gas air to air heat exchanger
function of ventilating air in combustion heater
more heat where needed
what are the sources of ventilating air in combustion heater
components of air cycle cooling system
air to air heat exhangers
what causes the temp drop in air cycle
expansion turbine. air does work and undergoes a pressure and temperature drop.
how does a water separator work
vanes swirl the air and water is collected
vapor cycle is?
components of vapor cycle are?
expansion valves (fig 14-36)
how does continuous flow oxygen work
oxygen flows fro a cylinder through a line to reducing valve and to mask outlets
how does the pressure demand systems work
oxygen flows from cylinder to pressure regulator and each member adjusts as needed.
if system is open two or more hours?
must be purged to remove moisture
used to purge
type of O2 (oxygen) used?
aviators breathing oxygen
why is oil added to vapor cycle systems
provide lube for compressor
safety handling O2 is?
oil free tools, clothing, hands, and wear eye protection
reference for range markings come from where?
TCDS, flight manual
yellow arc means what?
markings on dial face
instrument repair station
slippage marks are for what purpose?
installing range markings?
slippage mark is white
how could you check MAP gauge?
current atmospheric pressure
what instrument may be used to check MAP gauge?
what indication errors may be found in altimeters?
instruments connected to pilot-static system
why not clear obstructions from static holes with a tool?
holes are critical aerodynamically
what is required after components are replaced in pilot-static system
turn and bank indicators driven by
what causes an electric driven gyro rotor to tilt when the aircraft turns?
what is a synchronous type remote indicating system
transfers unit's information from one point to another.
What does a capacitor type fuel quantity system accurately determine?
weight of fuel
crank shaft or main turbine speed
where does an electrical resistance temperature indicator receive a signal?
temperature sensitive element or bulb
turbine exhaust gas temperature sensing system uses a
thermocouple type system
swinging a compass
correcting for deviations by adjusting magnets
items looked for during compass inspection
what effects to magnetic fields generated by operating electrical equipment or metal components have on a compass?
deflect needle from magnetic course
NOTE: pitot static includes airspeed indicator, altimeter, & VSI or vertical speed indicator
three auto pilot components are
turn and bank gyro
servos that operate the system
basic components of communication system are
headset or speaker
most common com is
transponder cert when?
VOR system consists of?
two antennas or multi element for ILS are
glide slope beam
correct angle of descent
what is DME
distance measuring equipment
what do you use VOR for?
where should DME antenna be located?
bottom of aircraft not blanked out by the wing
automatic direction finder
transponder atennas are
shot strike usually on a lower surface
what powers an ELT
self contained battery
how to do an ELT test
tune to 121.5 (civilian) on VHF
when do you replace ELT batteries?
date for replacement or recharging is on ELT and book; aircraft maintenance
coax cable routing is done how?
secured every two feet
not routed with other wire
bends are 10 times wire diameter
purpose of shock mounting bonding jumper is
low-impedance ground return
when should you check ELT
within five minutes if not coordinate with FAA after 1 hour or 2.
purpose of a dump system
when would a jettison system be required on a small aircraft?
takeoff weight is higher than landing weight
why 2 _______ independent systems for each wing?
two types of fuel cells
what supports the weight of the fuel in the bladder
structure of the cavity
wet wing means what
integral type fuel tank
purpose of temp indicator in turbine fuel cells is to
determine danger of ice crystals
purpose of cross feed system is
fuel can be fed from various tanks to any engine
positions on fuel selector valve are
drip gauges and sight gauges
bayonette type gauges
shut off valve transit light indicate
when valve is in motion
pressure fueling AKAS is
under wing, single point
advantages of single piont are
reduces fueling time
eliminates skin damage
reduces chance of contamination
how to check for leaks in a fuel tank
soap and water
what do you do with old gaskets and seals?
replace with new
what type of leak may not be visible outside?
internal leaks in valves
four types of fuel indicators
why are electronic more accurate
measures by weight, not gallons
what is the purpose of baffles
resist fuel surging
why wait after fueling to check surges?
allow time for water to settle
determine size of unmarked wire?
wire gauge (AWG)
why check an electrical system before a load increase?
ensure wire, cable, or protective device limit will not be exceeded.
what device may cause short time demand load
landing gear motors
what instruments are used to monitor electrical loads?
ammeters and volt meters
what type breaker should not be used in aircraft
when should a switch be derated?
when used with high rush in circuits, inductive circuits, DC motors
where are the white position light mounted
tail, visible from the rear
left position color is? right?
factors in wire size selection for electrical power?
allowable power loss
permissible volt charges
current carrying ability
when do electric motors draw several times their rated power?
how long should bonding wires be?
short as possible
what hardware should be used to make grounding connections to a structure of dissimilar metal?
a washer should be used so the corrosion will take place on it.
what should be done to conduit when fittings are not used
flare the end
what size conduit should be used?
25% larger than the wire bundle
when is a continuity check made?
with power off.
three faults associated with electrical systems?
when is a circuit breaker designed to open
before the conductor smokes
why would AC electric motor run slow
why would an AC motor run fast?
field windings shorted
what controls the output voltage of an alternator
voltage output of DC exciter
how many lugs can be put on a single terminal strip?
how can a particular wire bundle be identified?
ID code on wire
where should a circuit breaker be located?
as close to power source as possible
landing gear warnings or retracts
horn or aural device
when does an aural device operate in a landing gear system
throttle retarded and gear is not down and locked
gear down and locked?
purpose of MACH warning system is?
aural warning if speed is exceeded.
difference between take off and landing aural warning.
take off = intermittent
landing = steady
name items that can cause a take off horn to operate
APU exhaust door open
what does anti skid warning indicate
indication of anti skid returning to manual brakes
when do you check gear switches, lights, and warning horns or buzzers for ops?
on a gear retraction check
what gear positions must be indicated
if an aircraft only has one down light, how will the landing gear switches be wired?
where are the procedures located for checking and adjusting landing gear switches?
what other systems might activate landing warning system?
stall warning is what?
aural or visual
cabin doors opened or closed
alert to system failure
batter over temp is?
purpose of annunciator system is
to show by warning light the meaning of the condition they announce
source of the anti-skid warning system signal is?
skid control generator
what will cause a leading edge anti-ice overheat light to illuminate?
failure of the thermal switch to cause the closure of the anti-ice shut off valve
two methods of inflating boots are
bleed air from turbine
how is deicer boot attached
cement farring strips and screws or both
function of oil separator
removes 75% wet pump oil from air
what must be done to a deicer boot prior to cold patch repair?
return installed tension
what normally keeps deicer boots held down in flight?
suction is supplied during flight
methods to supply heat for thermal anti-ice systems
engine exhaust heat exchangers
ram air heated by combustion heater
how is temp maintained in anti-ice
mixing heated and cold air
what prevents overheating of the leading edge strip in a thermal anti-ice system that is operated by engine bled air?
a sensor will cause a valve to close and shut off the flow of hot air
where is a carbon dioxide systems usually used?
cabins and cockpits
how can you get indications of excess CO2 fumes using a CO2 tester?
yellow silica gel turns green or tan tablet turns dark gray or black
how does a photo electric smoke detector warn?
smoke causes an electrical current
how may photo electric detectors be checked?
switch and test circuit
two types of smoke detection instruments used in aircraft?
what does a thermal switch fire detection system consist of?
heat sensitive units that complete circuits at certain temps
how are Fenwall spot detectors wired
parallel between two complete loops of wiring
how are thermal switch switch units wired?
parallel with each other and in series with lights
how is a thermocouple fire warning system different from a thermal switch system
thermal switch works at a specific temp; thermocouple system depends on rate of use
what does a continuous loop system consist of?
one or more wires embedded in a special ceramic core that changes resistance with temperature.
what is a continuous element fire detection system?
stainless loop containing a discreet element that produces gas when heated and a mechanical switch
types of extinguish systems
most common agent used in a conventional system
agent found in a high rate discharge
halogenated hydrocarbon (halons)
check freon containers for pressure
use chart for temperature and pressures
what protects a freon bottle from excessive temp?
purpose of yellow disk in fire system?
indicates normal discharge.
indications caused by kinks and sharp levels in bends and sensing elements?
false indicators caused by shorts
how is a freon bottle discharged
electronically discharge cartridge
service life on discharge cartridge is determined by?