Pathology Chapter 12

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Pathology Chapter 12
2014-01-25 22:14:23
IBS 103

chapter 12
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  1. a relative state of mind in which a person who is healthy is able to cope with and adjust to the recurrent stresses of everyday living in a culturally acceptable way
    mental health
  2. a functional impairment that substantially interferes with or limits one or more major life activities for a significant duration
    mental illness
  3. observable demonstrations of emotion that can be described in terms of quality, range, and appropriateness
  4. moderately reduced range of affect
    blunted affect
  5. the diminishment or loss of emotional expression sometimes observed in schizophrenia, mental retardation, and some depressive disorders
    flat affect
  6. multiple, abrupt changes in affect seen in certain types of schizoprenia and bipolar disorder
    labile affect
  7. generally appropriate emotional response
    full/wide range of affect
  8. inability to remember either isolated parts of the past or one's entire past; may be caused by brain damage or severe emotional trauma
  9. absence of the ability to experience either pleasure or joy, even in the face of causative events
  10. effort to conceal a gap in memory by fabricating detailed, often believable stories. Associated with alcohol abuse
  11. difficulty with performing mathematical calculations
  12. generalized negative mood characterized by depression
  13. repetition of words or phrases spoken by others
  14. exaggerated sense of physical and emotional well-being not based on reality, disproportionate to the cause, or inappropriate to the situation
  15. any unreal sensory perception that occurs with no external cause
  16. excessive movement and activity
  17. a state of near unconsciousness
  18. lack of normal mental functioning due to injury or disease. may include changes to personality as well as memory and reasoning
  19. a pattern of drug use that causes damage to health
    harmful use
  20. state in which the body becomes accustomed to the substance ingested
  21. individuals who exhibit a lessening or disappearance of a disease or disorder are said to be in
  22. acute and sometimes fatal delirium induced by the cessation of ingesting excessive amounts of alcohol over a long period
    delirium tremens (DTs)
  23. difficulty in controlling use of a drug
  24. episode of behavioral disturbance following ingestion of alcohol or psychotropic drugs
  25. group of symptoms that occur during cessation of the use of a regularly taken drug
    withdrawal state
  26. paralysis or immobility from psychological or emotional rather than physical causes
  27. this form of schizophrenia is dominated by prominent psychomotor disturbances that may alternate between extremes, such as hyperkinesis and stupor, and may be accompanied by a dreamlike (oneiric) state and hallucinations
    catatonic schizophrenia / schizophrenic catalepsy
  28. condition of confusion, unfocused, irrational agitation. in mental disorders, agitation and confusion may also be accompanied by a more intense disorientation, incoherence, or fear, and illusions, hallucinations and delusions
  29. characterized by prominent affective changes, fleeting and fragmentary delusions and hallucinations, and irresponsible and unpredictable behaviors. Shallow, inappropriate mood, flighty thoughts, social isolation, and incoherent speech are also present
    hebephrenia / disorganized schizophrenia
  30. a state of dreamlike hallucination
  31. a type of delusional disorder, paranoia includes the inaccurate perception of suspicious thinking
    paranoia / delusional disorder / late paraphrenia
  32. disassociation with or impaired perception of reality; may be accompanied by hallucinations, delusions, incoherence, akathisia (the inability to keep still) and/or disorganized behavior
  33. a group of disorders characterized by fundamental distortions of thinking and perception, coupled with affects that are inappropriate or blunted. the patient exhibits characteristic inability to recognize and appropriate perception of reality, although his/her intellectual capacity is usually intact
  34. unlike the other forms of schizophrenia, patient exhibits anhedonia, eccentric behavior, cold affect and social isolation.
    schizotypal disorder / borderline schizophrenia / latent schizophrenia / prodromal schizophrenia
  35. disorder characterized by swings between an elevation of mood, increased energy and activity (hypomania and mania), and a lowering of mood and decreased energy and activity (depression)
    bipolar disorder (BP, BD)
  36. disorder characterized by recurring episodes of mild elation and depression that are not severe enough to warrant a diagnosis of bipolar disorder
  37. mild, chronic depression of mood that last for years but is not severe enough to justify a diagnosis of depression
  38. depression typically characterized by its degree or number of occurrences. Patient exhibits dysphoria, reduction of energy, and decrease in activity. symptoms include anhedonia, lack of ability to concentrate, and fatigue. Patient may experience parasomnias, diminished appetite, and loss of self-esteem
    major depressive disorder
  39. state of an unstable, inappropriate mood
  40. fear of heights
  41. fear of leaving home and entering crowded spaces
  42. fear of men
  43. fear of scrutiny by other people
    anthropophobia / social phobia
  44. anticipation of impending danger and dread accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and breathing difficulty not associated with an apparent stimulus
  45. fear of enclosed spacess
  46. persistent belief in a demonstrable untruth or a provable, inaccurate perception despite clear evidence to the contrary
  47. maladaptive coping with severe stress by developing one or more seperate personalities
    dissociative identity disorder / multiple personlity disorder
  48. inability or difficulty with reading and/or writing
  49. anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about everyday things that is disproportionate to the actual source of worry
    generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
  50. fear of women
  51. abnormal, persistent concern about physical health.
    hypochondriacal disorder
  52. an irrational fear of developing a specific disease
  53. inaccurate sensory perception based on a real stimulus; examples include mirages and interpreting music or wind as voices
  54. disorder characterized by recurrent, distressing, and unavoidable preoccupations or irresistible drives to perform specific rituals that the patient feels will prevent some harmful event
    obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
  55. anxiety disorder characterized by recurring, severe panic attacks. commons symptoms of a panic attack include rapid heartbeat, perspiration, dizziness, dyspnea, uncontrollable fear, and hyperventilation
    panic disorder (PD)
  56. extended emotional response to traumatic event. symptoms may include flashbacks, recurring nightmares, anhedonia, insomnia, hypervigilance, anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, and emotional blunting
    post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  57. any disorder that has unfounded physical complaints by the patient, despite medical assurance that no physiologic problem exist
    somatoform disorder
  58. prolonged refusal to eat adequate amounts of food and an altered perception of what constitutes a normal minimum body weight caused by an intense fear of becoming obese
    anorexia nervosa
  59. eating disorder in which the individual repetitively eats large quantities of food and then purges the body through self-induced vomiting or inappropriate use of laxatives
    bulimia nervousa
  60. excessive length or depth of sleep, especially during the daytime
  61. indifference or unresponsiveness to sexual stimuli; inability to achieve orgasm during intercourse
    hypoactive sexual desire disorder / frigidity
  62. an inability to fall (or stay) asleep without a known cause
    idiopathic insomnia
  63. relentless drive to achieve sexual orgasm in the female
  64. relentless drive to achieve sexual orgasmn in the male
  65. a disorder characterized by disgust, fear, revulsion, or lack of desire in consensual relationships involving genital contact
    sexual aversion disorder
  66. sleepwalking
  67. disorder in which the patient shows a complete lack of interest in social obligations, to the extreme of showing antipathy for other individuals.  patients frustrate easily, are quick to display aggression, show a tendency to blame others, and do not change their behavior even after punishment
    antisocial personality disorder / dissocial personality disorder
  68. disorder characterized by impulsive, unpredictable mood and self-image, resulting in unstable interpersonal relationships and a tendency to see and respond to others as unwaveringly good or evil
    borderline personality disorder (BPD)
  69. reliance on an object as a stimulus for sexual arousal and pleasure
  70. uncontrollable impulse to steal
  71. abnormal sexual attraction to dead bodies
  72. characterized by recurrent and unavoidable preoccupations or irresistible drives to perform specific rituals that the patient feels will prevent some harmful event. patients find their preoccupations natural and normal
    obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD)
  73. state in which the individual exhibits inappropriate suspicious thinking, self-importance, a lack of ability to forgive perceived insults, and an extreme sense of personal rights
    paranoid personality disorder
  74. an abnormal sexual attraction to objects, situations, or individuals that is not part of normal stimulation
  75. sexual preference, either in fantasy or actuality, for children as a means of achieving sexual excitement and gratification
  76. uncontrollable impulse to set fires
  77. condition in which the patient withdraws into a fantasy world, with little need for social interaction. most patients have little capacity to experience pleasure or to express their feelings
    schizoid personality disorder
  78. uncontrollable impulse to pull one's hair out by the roots
  79. IQ range of 50-55 to 70; learning difficulties result
    mild mental retardation
  80. IQ range of 35-40 to 50-55; support needed to function in society
    moderate mental retardation
  81. IQ less than 20-25; severe self care limitations
    profound mental retardation
  82. IQ range of 20-25 to 35-40; continuous need for support to live in society
    severe mental retardation
  83. disorder characterized by impairment of social interaction and repetitive patterns of inappropriate behavior. often considered a high functioning form of autism
    Asperger's syndrome
  84. condition of abnormal development of social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behavoirs
    autistic disorder / autism
  85. a group of disorders characterized by impaired communication and social interaction that includes autism, and Rett's and Asperger's syndromes. Not to be confused with specific developmental disorders (SDD) such as dyslexia and dyscalculia
    pervasive developmental disorders (PDD)
  86. condition characterized by initial normal functioning followed by loss of social and intellectual functioning. usually diagnosed only in girls
    Rett's syndrome
  87. series of syndromes that include impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, and short attention span
    attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  88. any of a number of disorders characterized by patterns of persistent aggressive and defiant behaviors
    conduct disorder
  89. a type of conduct disorder that is characterized by hostile, disobedient behavior
    oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)