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- the investigation of structural alterations in cells, tissues, and organs, which
- can help identify the cause of a particular disease.
the pattern of tissue changes associated with the development of disease.
refers to the study of the cause of disease.
Diseases that have no identifiable cause
Diseases that occur as a result of medical treatment
Diseases that are acquired as a consequence of being in a hospital environment
naming or identification of a disease.
expected outcome of a disease.
the sudden appearance of signs and symptoms that last only a short time.
- develops more slowly and the signs and symptoms last for a long time, perhaps for a
- lifetime. Chronic diseases may have a pattern of remission and exacerbation.
periods when symptoms disappear or diminish significantly
periods when the symptoms become worse or more severe.
- the onset of a disease in a person who is already coping with another existing disease.
- For example, a person who has undergone surgery to remove a diseased appendix
- may develop the complication of a wound infection or pneumonia.
- unwanted outcomes of having a disease or are the result of trauma, such as paralysis
- resulting from a stroke or severe scarring resulting from a burn.
the signs and symptoms or evidence of disease.
- objective alterations that can be observed or measured by another person, measures of
- bodily functions such as pulse rate, blood pressure, body temperature, or white
- blood cell count.
Different types of signs
- Some signs are local such as redness or swelling, and other signs are systemic
- such as fever.
- subjective experiences reported by the person with disease, such as pain, nausea, or
- shortness of breath, and they vary from person to person.
- The prodromal period of a disease is the time during which a person experiences vague
- symptoms such as fatigue or loss of appetite before the onset of specific signs
- and symptoms.
- refers to vague or nonspecific feelings and an awareness that there is a change within
- the body.
- a time during which no symptoms are readily apparent in the affected person, but
- the disease is nevertheless present in the body; an example is the incubation
- phase of an infection or the early growth phase of a tumor.
- a group of symptoms that occur together and may be caused by several interrelated
- problems or a specific disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), for
- example, presents with a set of symptoms that include headache, fever, body
- aches, an overall feeling of discomfort, and sometimes dry cough and difficulty
- an abnormality of function; this term also can refer to an illness or a particular
- problem such as a bleeding disorder.
- the study of tracking patterns or disease occurrence and transmission among
- populations and by geographic areas.
Incidence of a disease is the number of new cases occurring in a specific time period.
Prevalence of a disease is the number of existing cases within a population during a specific time period.
Risk factor/predisposing factors
- risk factors increase the probability that disease will occur, but these factors are not the cause of disease. Risk factors include heredity, age, gender, race,
- environment, and lifestyle.
a condition or event that does cause a pathologic event or disorder. For example, asthma is precipitated by exposure to an allergen, or angina (pain) is precipitated by exertion.