Chapter 1 Vocab 1

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Chapter 1 Vocab 1
2014-01-22 20:36:42

Chapter 1
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  1. -Differing from the normal
    • Abnormal (adj.)
    • -Frank's abnormal behavior caused his parents to send him to a counselor.
  2. -to refuse to participate in an activity
    • Abstain (v.)
    • -Adriane's medical condition forced her to abstain from french fries.
  3. -to give up power or responsibility; to relinquish power or responsibility formally
    • Abdicate (v.)
    • -The king was forced to abdicate when the people did not have faith in him.
  4. -to take away illegally and against one's will; kidnap
    • Abduct (v.)
    • It was clear that the stalker abducted the young child, but the police soon rescued him.
  5. -to reject solemnly; to renounce upon oath; to abstain from; avoid
    • Abjure (v.)
    • Every holiday season, Lisa abjures eating chocolate and other candy.
  6. -to rub off or wear away by friction; erode
    • Abrade (v.)
    • When Holly fell off her bike, she abraded the skin on her elbow.
  7. -to abolish by authoritative action; annul; to treat as nonexistent; repeal
    • Abrogate (v.)
    • The young mother abrogated her responsibilities by leaving her child alone and without food.
  8. -the stake a poker player puts into the pool before receiving his hand; one's share; cost
    • Ante (n.)
    • Before the poker game, each player put his ante in the middle of the table.
  9. -a waiting room
    • Anteroom (n.)
    • Shelly waited in the anteroom before Dr. Madison saw her.
  10. 1. A date given to an event or a document that is earlier than the actual date
    2. To give a date earlier than the actual date; date back; to precede in time
    • Antedate
    • 1. (n.) The antedate on the check was too early to be legitimate.
    • 2. (v.) The first satellite around the earth antedated the moon landing.
  11. -abbreviation for ante meridiem (before noon) used to specify the hour
    • a.m. (adj.)
    • Jody’s first class was at 8:00 a.m., so she often took coffee with her.
  12. -one that precedes; any occurrence or event prior to another; ancestry; the word, phrase, or clause to which a relative pronoun refers.
    • Antecedent (n.)
    • Every pronoun should have a clear antecedent earlier in the sentence.
    • Susan hid her keys.
  13. -belonging to the period prior to the U.S. Civil War
    • Antebellum (adj.)
    • David’s area of expertise is the antebellum South; his new book explains the situation in 1855.
  14. -eyepieces for both close vision and distant vision.
    • Bifocals (n.)
    • Howard lost his bifocals and couldn’t read the fine print on the contract.
  15. -marriage to two or more people at the same time
    • Bigamy (n.)
    • Having more than one spouse is illegal (and tiring!), and it is called bigamy.
  16. -to divide something into two equal parts.
    • Bisect (v.)
    • Lonnie bisected the sandwich so both he and Bonnie would have equal amounts.
  17. -animal with two feet
    • Biped (n.)
    • Garfield the cat is not a biped, but his owner Jon is, with just two legs.
  18. -tooth with two points
    • Bicuspid (n.)
    • Dental x-rays showed Annette’s bicuspid to have a cavity.
  19. -the boundary line around any curved and enclosed area
    • Circumference (n.)
    • Use a tape measure to find out the circumference of the basketball.
  20. -to sail completely around
    • Circumnavigate (v.)
    • Before Jason’s ship sailed around the world, the headlines read “Will he circumnavigate the globe?”
  21. -heedful of circumstances or consequences; prudent
    • Circumspect (adj.)
    • Delores was quite circumspect and thought carefully about her job change.
  22. -to draw a line around; encircle; to confine with bounds; to restrict
    • Circumscribe (v.)
    • My mother circumscribed my life by limiting my friends and activities to only a few.
  23. - to surround and entrap by craft; to overcome by artful maneuvering; to avoid by or as if by passing around; to get around (instead of attacking directly
    • -Circumvent (v.)
    • Don’t circumvent the rules by skipping the proper procedure for entering the contest.
  24. -in a direction opposite to that in which the hands of a clock rotate as viewed from in front
    • Counterclockwise (adv.)
    • The plumber turned the wrench counterclockwise to repair the pipes.
  25. -a return attack; an attack made in response to an enemy's attack
    • counterattack (n.)
    • The army prepared for a counterattack after the enemy had destroyed half of their supplies.
  26. -the reformatory movement in the Roman Catholic Church which followed the protestant Reformation
    Counter Reformation (n.)
  27. - a duplicate, corresponding item, or opposite number; one that is markedly similar to another; one that has the same functions and characteristics as another
    • Counterpart (n.)
    • Shelly Stone is my counterpart in the day court reporting program; she teaches Vocabulary I and II.
  28. -to deny the truth of an assertion
    • Contradict (v.)
    • Paul always contradicts his wife by saying the opposite, even when he knows she is right.
  29. -to cancel or reverse; to go against
    • Countermand (v.)
    • Lynn had to countermand her earlier order and allow the workers to eat lunch in the workroom.
  30. - to remove frost from the surface of
    • Defrost (v.)
    • Paul always contradicts his wife by saying the opposite, even when he knows she is right.
  31. -gloomy; cast down; low in spirits; saddened
    • Depressed (adj.)
    • The current economic situation would make anyone depressed, even those who are normally happy.
  32. -to reduce or lessen the confidence, pride, self-esteem, or certainty of; to reduce the value or amount of (currency), effecting a decline in prices
    • Deflate (v.)
    • The balloons deflated by the end of the week, and they sagged to the floor without air.
  33. -to reduce speed
    • Decelerate (v.)
    • It is wise to decelerate when entering a school zone; speed kills!
  34. -to deprive (a tree or other plant) of leaves; to lose foliage; to strip leaves from a tree
    • Defoliate (v.)
    • The forceful wind defoliated the trees, so no leaves were present for the festival.
  35. -falling off or shed at a specific season or stage of growth; not lasting; temporary
    • Deciduous (adj.)
    • Maples, oaks, and elms lose their leaves every fall; they are classified as deciduous.
  36. -to lessen the price or value of
    • Depreciate (v.)
    • Extra mileage will depreciate the value of your car.
  37. -to belittle (to speak of as small or unimportant); to express disapproval of
    • Deprecate (v.)
    • Lisa always seems to deprecate Linus by calling attention to all his faults.
  38. -in mythology, the offspring of a god and a human being
    • Demigod (n.)
    • My sister loves Brad Pitt so much, she acts like he is a demigod. This picture is of Heracles (Hercules), a true demigod.
  39. -a small cup of strong black coffee served after dinner; the cup used to serve demitasse
    • Demitasse (n.)
    • Felicity served demitasse in tiny china cups after her fancy French dinner.
  40. -to free from illusion or false belief
    • Disenchant (v.)
    • I was disenchanted to learn my hero had a criminal past.
  41. -to jar or move from the regular location or place
    • Dislocate, Displace (v.)
    • Joann’s shoulder was dislocated, and she had to see a doctor to put it in place.
  42. -the reduction or elimination of armament or weapons
    • Disarmament (n.)
    • The leaders called for disarmament, hoping that no guns would be fired.
  43. -to swell out or expand from, as if from internal pressure; to blow up; to extend
    • Distend (v.)
    • The patient’s belly was distended, so his hospital gown would not close.
  44. - to break up and drive off; to cause to spread thin or scatter and gradually vanish; to lose (as heat or electricity) irrecoverably
    • Dissipate (v.)
    • I hope the air freshener will dissipate the odor of garlic in the kitchen.
  45. -to spread abroad as though sowing seed; to disperse throughout; to scatter widely
    • Disseminate (v.)
    • The press office disseminated the information about the presidential candidate to all the newspapers.
  46. -incapable of being consoled; hopelessly sad
    • Disconsolate (adj.)
    • Serena was disconsolate about her spelling test, so we tried to cheer her up.