1. Are not limited to natural sounds, but experiment with the manipulation of sounds, dialog, and music.
2. Works with the director to shape an overall and consistent soundtrack.
Creates the final film in post-production
Creates the narrative
1. Must work closely with the director in order to gain a complete understanding of the story
2. In charge of shooting the movie
1. In charge of visualizing a script and translating it into images, sounds, and emotions.
2. The creative force behind the making of a film.
1. Employed to disorient and disturb the viewer or show that the world in the scene is out of balance.
2. The camera is purposely titled to one side so the horizon is on an angle.
1. Similar to an establishing shot, can be used to expose the larger situation or to show the insignificance of a character or event.
2. The angle of this shot is frequently used early in the movie for establishing characters, time, place.
Aerial View Shot
The angle of this shot making them appear less powerful, helpless, insignificant, or in some cases, trapped.
The camera is positioned below eye level looking up at the subject. The angle provides a sense of power, dominance, or height.
Low angle shot
Using this angle, this type of shot is an extremely common because of its neutral effect.
Eye level camera angle
A shot good for when a character is speaking as it can show facial and body gestures. It is a waist up shot of a character.
A shot that shows the entire human body, with the head near the top of the frame and the feet near the bottom. While the focus is on characters, plenty of background detail still emerges.
Camera pays very close attention to the subject; mostly used on faces.
Generally a long shot of landscape, the exterior of a building or a rural scene, used at the beginning of a sequence in order to establish a general impression of what's to follow.
The shot does not serve to give specific information or details.
Usually too close to show emotions or reactions.
Extreme Close-Up (ECU)
The idea of ___ was to put forth explaining that the brain could retain an image a split second longer than the eye actually sees it, providing the illusion of movement.
Persistence of Vision
A circular drum, called a ___ while a toy, creates the illusion of movement for the viewer.
___ creates the first series of still photographs of continuous motion (a running horse), using a row of cameras.
George Eastman begins mass-producing a clear plastic film called ___. It is flexible and allows light to pass through it.
___ and his research laboratory invents the Kinetoscope, an individual motion picture viewing box. The research team soon after films Fred Ott's Sneeze, the earliest American film on record.
___ invent the Cinematographe, a portable, hand-cranked device that is a camera, processing plant, and projector all in one. Within a year, seeing the potential for mass appeal, they open their first ____ for paying audiences; thus establishing the realistic style of filmmaking.
The Lumiere Brothers
___ establishes Europe's first movie-making ___. He begins making simple narrative films, most fantastic in nature like the Voyage to the Moon, thus establishing, the second basic type of filmmaking, antirealism films.
___contributes to the development of cinema with the first narrative film with a storyline and early use of continuity editing with The Great Train Robbery.
__are beginning to be built through the US, bring motion pictures to people of all social classes.
___begins his pioneering, highly innovative moviemaking career. First with series of shorts and then feature-length films, including The Birth of a Nation (1915), he helped establish and standardize the classic Hollywood Style.
__ created the internationally loved character, the Little Tramp, established the studio United Artists (1919) with fellow filmakers, and made feature films like The Gold Rush
T/F Virtually every movie employs a narrative
In movies, meaning is often absorbed___. One technique that contributes to a movie delivering this includes__.
Which of the following statements best characterizes viewer expectations?
Our experience of any given film is affected by how that film manipulates expectations.
Which definition of editing accurately describes film editing as one of the defining characteristics that distinguish movies from other art forms?
The joining together of shots to control what the viewer sees in a movie and how the viewer sees it.
Form describes__ while content describes__
The means by which the narrative is expressed
The subject of a moive
Addressing the relationship between form and expectations, a movie's structure is organized around
The viewer's desire to learn the answers to questions posed by story elements.
Parallel editing allows different story lines of action appear to be happening at the same time, creating the illusion of connections, and more importantly, serves to heighten__.
the drama, the action, the tension.
Movies depend on __. Movies provide an illusion of __. And movies manipulate space and __ in unique ways.
List the very basic narrative structure of movies
a clearly motivated protagonist
pursue a goal
meets obstacles in the ways
Explain: filmmakers exploit every tool at their disposal and therefore everything is there for a reason.
The editor uses every tool possible to make sure the audience sees what they want them to see, this ties into explicit and implicit meaning, everything is there on purpose. Nothing is accidental.
Why did the German film industry prosper just after WWI?
The German government gave generous subsidies to film producers.
T/F Germany's film industry in the 1920s aimed to create a new image for Germany.
Which of the following best describes German Expressionist performance?
German Expressionist actors carefully exaggerated movements and gestures in a very stylized manner.
Which of the following is NOT a common characteristic of German Expressionist films?
Use of simple/subdued costumes, hair and make-up
Which is NOT a reason why the soviet government, Lenin in particular, supported the film industry?
It had the power to literally hypnotize audiences.
T/F In the Soviet Montage movement, many individual actors because famous celebrities and were credited with making the movement so popular.
T/F The soviet government used films during this time as tools of propaganda.
What is the Kuleshov effect?
One of the basic principles of editing: meaning produced by joining two shots together exceeds the visual information contained in each individual shot
Can be explained with a formula like : (A+B=C) or (thesis + anithesis = synthesis)
Audiences can derive an emotional meaning from the juxtaposition of two completely unrelated shots
T/F French Avant-Garde filmakers considered cinema an intellectual movement and they considered themselves "intellectuals for intellectuals"
Which of the following was NOT a type of film made at the onset of the Avant-Garde movement:
Innovative animated films
The French Avant-Garde movement initiated what type of cinema?
What do all these movements (German Expressionism, Soviet Montage, and French Avant-Garde have in common?
They are all in reaction to the events of WWI
An Andalusian Dog
The Cabinet of Dr Caligari
Which type of narrator can provide information that is not limited to just one character? This narrator tends to be omniscient.
third person narrator
Which of the following character types changes over the course of a film?
Characters are established, esp. the protagonist
Most of the story takes place, there's a pursuit of a goal
The "normal world" is established
Obstacles are confronted
Mise en Scene
the staging of a scene
where the action unfolds
the overall look and feel of a movie
the sum of everything the audience sees, hears and experiences
What is not an element of Mise en Scene?
The function of a film's setting gives the viewer insight/information about time and place and is particularly useful at
creating and setting the mood of a film
When referring to lighting in a film's Mise en Scene, which is NOT an attribute?
The frequency of light
T/F Lighting contrast depends on the ratio of key light to fill light
The theory that you create a grid and place points of interest in the intersections or along the lines of the grid, then the shot becomes more balanced, interesting, and dynamic.
The rule of thirds
The two terms frequently associated with cinematic framing are
Who films the movie?
Director of Photography, Cinematographer, DP
Camera does NOT change position, instead it just pivots or rotates?
__shots are supposed to seem unsteady.
The standard aspect radio for motion pictures in the United States is 1.85:1 What do the numbers refer to?
The ratio of width to height.
The film editor's job is to create
What does the editor use to manipulate the presentation of plot time on-screen?
Does not use master scene
Editors can control the _ of a film by varying the duration of the shots in relation to one another.
The two fundamental objectives of continuity editing are to establish coverage of the scene through the __ technique and to maintain screen direction with the __.
Adhering to the 180-degree system does...
help to orient the viewer within the scene
ensure consistent screen direction across and between cuts
Which of the following is NOT a shot/transition type that helps maintain continuinty?