pharmacokinetics.txt

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Author:
BELISA78
ID:
25798
Filename:
pharmacokinetics.txt
Updated:
2010-07-06 00:32:57
Tags:
PT pharmacology
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Description:
Review of pharmacokinetics
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  1. percentage of medication that reaches the systemic circulation
    bioavailability
  2. Name the 7 ways drugs can be absorbed into the body:
    oral

    sublingual

    inhalation

    intramuscular

    subcutaneous

    intravenous

    transdermal or topical
  3. drugs absorbed through this route

    - must be lipid soluble
    - are absorbed through passive diffusion
    oral
  4. drugs absorbed through this route:

    - can not be taken orally because will be destroyed by stomach acid
    sublingual

    -nitroglycerin
  5. drugs absorbed through this route:

    - are delivered directly to site of action via small particles
    - have minimized side effects
    Inhalation

    -bronchodialators
  6. drugs absorbed through this route:

    - have rapid absorption
    - should avoid high fat distribution which can slow down absorption
    intramuscular
  7. Drugs absorbed through this route:

    are consistent, reliable with good bioavailability
    subcutaneous
  8. drugs absorbed through this route:

    have instantaneous systemic absorption
    intravenous
  9. Pharmokinetic terms for drugs
    : % of med that reaches systemic circulation

    : method by which drug is administered into body

    : method by which drug gets to site of action

    : elimination of drugs to maintain proper levels of medications

    : clearance of drug from the body by volume of blood/unit of time
    • bioavailability
    • absorption
    • distribution
    • metabolism
    • elimination
  10. Distribution ( drugs ability to get to site of action) is affected by:

    1) local blood flow

    2) plasma protein binding
    1) ischemia can result in treatment failure

    • 2) drugs NOT protein-bound are ACTIVE and THERAPEUTIC
    • too much free drug can be toxic
    • liver and kidneys produce proteins for binding to keep drug toxicity down
  11. enzymes in liver transform drugs to less active or inactive drug compounds or to another substance.

    : this drug is inactive when administered and metabolized into an active form by the liver.
    • Prodrug
    • ie: cortisone is administered inactive and converted to active hydrocortisone
  12. this is a phenomenon occurs when an oral drug is metabolized by the liver before it enters the systemic circulation therefore decreases bioavailability.
    First pass
  13. drug elimination occurs in this organ
    kidney
  14. the amount of time it takes for plasma concentration to drop to 50%
    half life
  15. drugs and receptors/receptor sites:
    • can bind with or block receptors
    • can avoid receptors and directly attack foreign organisms
    • act chemically
  16. :endogenous substances and drugs that bind with appropriate receptors to produce some effect.
    agonist: affinity to bind may be strong or weak
  17. : ability to cause a response at a receptor site
    efficacy
  18. : comparing two drugs and their ability to produce the same response.
    Potency
  19. : subtances or drugs that fit into and bind to receptor sites to block the receptor and not allow it to be activated.

    have an affinity for site but no efficacy
    therapeutic in that they may increase or decrease a certain biological process
    antagonists

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