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integumentary (organ system)
- Protects internal body from external environment. (bacteria, viruses, abrasions)
- Sensitive to pressure and pain.
- Provides supports/structure
- Protects organs
Provides strength and mobility to body.
- Uses Electrical pulses for sensory detection in body.
- The brain
Secretes and delivers hormones in response to the environment, for growth and other things hormones are good for
Pumps blood and lymph around the body to supply the body
Provides oxygen and CO2 exchange in lungs to provide O2 for the blood
Breaks down food into absorbable units for use by the body. Secretes leftovers as feces.
Filters blood, secretes nitrogneous waste. Balances water and pH in circulatory system.
- Different in males and females.
- Creates sex hormones, and reproductive organs.
- Creates 2-D picture based on absorption of X-rays of different materials.
- Good for broken bones.
CT or CAT Scans, DSA
- Takes x-ray image from many angles to optimize for each organ.
- DSA is good for visualizing arteries. Takes pictures before and after contrast is injected
- Detects radioactive isotope that can be injected into the bloodstream. Sees where blood is going.
- Getting outdated
- Uses soundwaves that bounce off different organs different to visualize shapes. None damaging and good for fetuses and other small things.
- Poor resolution.
MRI, MRS, fMRI
Can see water saturation. Good for visualizing soft tissue (especially brains)
- provides high resolution image.
- MRS can determine chemical compound location and amounts
Week 1 of Pregnancy: Names and description of developments
- Zygote - fertilized oocyte, moves to uterus,
- Blastomeres - divides to 2, 4, 8 cell stage (2 days)
- Morula (3 days)- 12-64 cells. cell are small.
- Blastocyst (4 days)- forms cavity with inner cell mass (fetus) and trophoblast (placenta) . implants in uterus wall
Week 2 of pregnancy
- Day 9- split into fluid sacs epiblast and hypoblast
- epiblast - inside is amniotic fluid, outside is amnion
- hypoblast- inside is yolk (becomes digestive tube)
Week 3: three layered embryo
Epiblast (ectoderm) migrate to primitive streak, push out hypoblast (forms endoderm), and cells between the two form mesoderm.
Mesodermal cells by primitive streak form notochord.
ectoderm inline with notochord start to form neural plate, which becomes neural groove. these cell induce neural crest cells (which break off and will form nerves)
Week 3 mesoderm differentiation
- Mesoderm is lateral to notochord
- Somites- closest to notochord, paraxial mesoderm, forms first body segments (40 by week 5)
- intermediate mesoderm-segments into spherical shapes, attach to somites
- lateral plate- split into two layers, forms coelum (space between for ventral cavity)
Week 4 of pregnancy
- Body starts to shape, when sides fold and form cylinder.
- derivatives of germ layers form
Dorsal Body Cavity
Cranial and vertebral cavities
Ventral Body cavity
- Thoracic Cavity- Lungs and Heart
- Abdominal Cavity- stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, kidneys, and spleen
- Pelvic cavity- Urinary tract, reproductive organs, and rectum
- Parietal membrane- lines the inside of the body cavity (outer layer)
- Visceral membrane- lines the internal organs
- Serous fluid- fills space of the cavity allowing for organ movement and flexibility
Anatomical Directional Terms
- -Anterior (ventral) and Posterior (dorsal)
- -Superior and inferior
- -medial and lateral
- -distal and proximal
- -superficial and deep
What is unique about epithelial tissue in terms of its cellularity?
Almost entirely of cells, little connective tissue or extracellular material
What specialized intercellular bridges or contacts stabilize this type of tissue? (In terms of polarity, note that an epithelial cell has an apical and a basal surface.)
- Gap junctions- allow for passage of nutrients and signals to pass between cells
- Tight Junctions- tightly hold together cells, do not allow anything to pass between the cells,
- desmosomes- cells walls attach to each other with linker proteins, inside the cells attached to microtubules, allowing for diffusion of mechanical stress
Which surface on an epithelial cell is associated with the basement membrane? What would be the function of the basement membrane?
- The basal surface.
- The basement membrane is a scaffold to hold the cells and makes it easy for cells to regenerate quickly. It also filters out the nutrients that can pass through from connective tissue to the epithelial cells
Epithelia are avascular but innervated. What does this mean? Without blood vessels within the epithelia, how are epithelial cells nourished and oxygenated?
- They do not have vascular tissue (blood capilaries) entering the cells. blood vessels are underneath in the connective tissue and nutrients travel from there.
- Nerve tissue permeated the epithelial cells and therefore allow for sensation (pressure and pain senstivity)
Why is it important that epithelia be able to regenerate on a regular basis?
Because the cell often deal with high amount of friction and will fall off
Simple Squamous Epithelium
- Single layer, plate like cells, flat nucleus.
- Good for filtering nutrients like in blood vessels and lung alveolar walls
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
- Single layer, cube cells
- good for secretion and absorption
- secretory portions of small glands, kidney tubules, ovary surface
Simple Columnar Epithelium
- Single layer, column-like, vertical eliptical nucleus
- Absorption and secretion of mucus, enzymes,
non-ciliated- in degestive tract, gall bladder,excretory ducts
ciliated- bronchi, uterine tubes
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
- protection from abrasion.
- outside of body and entering pores of body
- can be cuboidal or columner -depends on stretch
- good for bladder and organs that need to stretch a lot
An embryonic cell from which all connective tissue orginates. Blood, bone, cartilage and connective tissue proper
Areolar connective tissue
Is loose connective tissue proper, all tissue created by fibroblasts
- -fibers provide support for other tissues
- -Hold body fluids
- -defend body against infection
- -store nutrients as fast
types of areolar that provide support
- Collagen - strong and abundant, resist tension
- Reticular-delicate networks that support structures
- elastic fibers- like rubber bands
Dense connective tissue
- Irregular- thicker collagen fibers. Fibers on different planes run in different directions, or are random (skin, surround some organs/joints)
- regular- collagen fibers in same direction, (tendons, ligaments, bands or sheets)
- elastic- good for stretching and recoiling (large arteries, bronchial tubes)
- fat cells.
- High metabolic activity removing and releases lipids from blood
- in hypodermis and around hard working organs.
- White and Brown (babies) tissue
- Firm but flexible. No blood vessels or nerves, made from Chondrocytes only
- abundant extracellular matric of collagen, ground substance and lots of water
- -hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
- contains calcium salts, resists high tension and conpression
- Osteoblasts and osteocytes (in cavities, lacunae
Blood: What is the matrix that surrounds the blood cells like?
- Only connective tissue because originates from mesenchyme cells.
- Surrounded by plasma, and transports ofr blood, oxygen, nutrients, waste, respitory gases, hormones
- top layer of skin.
- Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
- Provide protection, produce antibiotics and enzymes
- Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum (only thick skin), stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale.
papilary layer- superficial 20%, connective tissue, create fingerprints, supply nutrients
reticular layer- deep 80%. collagen is the thickest part of the skin resilience. irregular. has cleavage lines.
- Subcutaneous layer, superficial fascia.
- -areolar but mostly fatty connective tissue
- -insulator, loosely attached skin to muscles
What are the four types of cells make up the epidermis and where are they found?
- Keratinocytes - produce keratin, filled with keratin, die and pushed to outer layer to be shed
- Melanocytes- in Stratum basale, deepest layer, make melanin and pass it to keratinocytes. activated by UV.
- Merkel cells- in deepest layer, sensory
- Langerhans cells- in Stratum spinosum (spiny layer) scattered among kertinocytes (mitosising), detecting foreign antigens
What is the difference between thick and thin skin and where are the two types found?
- Thick- on palm and sole of foot, has 5 layers
- Thin- on body, has 4 layers
- Medulla (absent in fine hairs) large cells and hair spaces
- cortex- around medulla, flattened cells
- cuticle-single layer of cells that overlap like shingles
Connective tissue papilla (hair papilla) protrudes into each bulb and stimulates hair growth and supplies nutrients
Hair follicles are an appendage to the epidermis. How do they interact with the nervous system? What muscle is associated with the hair follicle and what does it do?
the hair follicle receptor, a nerve ending wraps around the hair bulb .
arrector pili muscle, from superficial dermis to deep lying hair follicle. when relaxed hair lyes flat, when tense causes hair to stand up on end
What does subcutaneous mean, as in subcutaneous injection
Under the skin
- Melanin- made from tyrosine, varies in color, from malanocytes in stratum basale
- Carotene- yellow-orange pigment from carrots and tomatoes
- Hemoglobin- in Caucasians bc skin is clear. pinkish hue of oxygenated blood or hematoma's (bruises, clotted mass of blood)
- hard keratin- (opposed to soft keratin, it is more durable and does not flake off
- under nail bed is deep epidermis only
- lunula- white cresent of nail matrix where nail grows
- proximal of nail body is the cuticle or eponychium
- skins oil glands- simple branched alveolar
- holocrene secrection- gland bursts to release oil (sebum)
Describe the differences of eccrine and apocrine glands.
- Eccrine- in hands, forehead, feet produce true sweat. (99%water with salts and trace metabolic waste)
- Apocrine- confined to axillary, anal and genitcal areas
What causes the secretions to produce what we refer to as body odor?
- from apocrine glands
- true sweat mixed with fatty substances, and proteins
- sebaceous glands
- skins oil glands- simple branched
- released into top third of hair follicle
- alveolar holocrene secrection- gland bursts to release oil (sebum)
What is acne?
When sebum cant exit gland quickly enough, black if oxidized, pimple if infected with bacteria
Vitiligo: Which skin pigment is missing in this situation?
loss of melanocytes
Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. Can you name other types of skin cancer?
- Basal cell carcinoma- from stratum
- Squamous cell carcinoma- from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
Where is cartilage found in the body?
- outer ear,
- larynx (voice box) including epiglottis,
- open air to respitory tract
- edges of bones at joints (articular cartilages) articular discs
- pelvic bone (pubic symphysis)
- rib attachment to sternum (costal cartilages),
- in the discs of the vertabrae
- most prevalent in the body, chondrocytes are spherical and is located in lacuna (pit in matrix)
- -made of collagen unit fibril
- outer ear and epiglottis
- , contains fibrils and elastic fibers
- resists compression and tension,
- alternating rows of thick collagen and chondrocytes surrounded by cartilage martix.
- in an anulus fibrosus portion of vertebral discs, articular portions of some joints, pubic symphysus
Composition of Bone
bone tissue, nerve tissue (nerves), blood tissue (blood vessels), cartilage tissue (articular cartilage), epithelial tissue
Where are the two types of bone marrow found and how are they different
Each bone has membrane covering the external and internal surfaces. Do you know which membrane covers which surface?
Give a specific example of how the bones accomplish support
They support the body allowing it stand upright
Give a specific example of how the bones accomplish protection
Ribs protect the organs from damage
Give a specific example of how the bones accomplish movement
They are the levers that the muscles can use to move
Give a specific example of how the bones accomplish mineral storage
They store minerals like calcium and phosphate, released when the body needs it
Give a specific example of how the bones accomplish blood-cell formation
contain red (blood cells) and yellow bone (fat storage) marrow
compact (dense) bone
outside of bones that is smooth
spongy (cancellous) bone
- trabecular bone
- honeycomb of flat peices called trabeculae, open spaces contain bone marrow
tarbeculae contain lamellae and osteocytes, but not osteons or blood vessels
- more long than fat. Most bones in limbs are long bones. Have distinct shafts (diaphysis) and ends (epiphysis).
- Femur, toes and finger bones
Are cube-shaped, in wrist and ankle
- shaped like sesame seeds, short bones that grow in a tendon (kneecap or patella)
- -alter the direction of pull of a tendon
- -reduce friction and modify pressure
- thin flattened and curved
- ribs, sternum, scapula (shoulder blade)
- Weird shapes
- -vertabrae, hip bones
Structure of Long Bones
- diaphysis, epiphysis, epipheseal line
- blood vessels- nutrient artery/vein, nutrient foramen
- Medullary cavity- very center of diaphysis, no bone tissue, only yellow marrow
outer surface, secured with perforating fibers (Sharpey's fibers). Endosteum
(inner surface) covers trabeculae
Microscopic Structure of Bone: The Osteon
- Haversian system
- a group of concentric tubes, lamellae.
thin tubes that connecting lacunae, which connect nutrient passages
- center of Osteon (haversian system)
- -lined by endosteum, supplies nutrients to bone and nerve cells.
Haversian system (osteon)
- concentric rings that make up osteon.
- between osteons are interstitial lamellae from old osteons
- circumferential lamellae
small cavities between the solid lamella
- spider-shaped, mature bone cells
- located in lacunae
- spider legs are in thin tubes, canaliculi, that connnect lacunae and allow for nutrient diffusion.
- They maintain the bone matrix
Perforating canals, at right angles to Haversian system to connect it to the peristeum
Chemical composition of bone
- 35% organic material - cells, fibers, ground substance, make bone fleixible and resist stretching and twisting
- 65% inorganic- calcium phosphate, make it strong
- bones are generated directly from mesenchyme. Only in the skull.
- mesenchymal cells cluster into connective tissue membrane, form osteoblasts, secret bone matrix to become osteocytes
First bones are made of hydraline cartilage and replaced by bones. Occurs from 2nd month of fetal development to adulthood
bone collar formation
perichondrium around diaphysis is invaded by blood vessels becoming peristeum. osteoblasts in persteum lay collar of bone tissue
cavitation of cartilage
- catilage surround diaphysis center calcifies, causing chonrocytes and catilage matrix to die and disintegrate leaving cavities.
- Bones are supported by the bone collar
periosteal bud invades
- Invasion of periosteal bud and cells that form bone marrow.
- Osteoclasts erode calcified cartilage, osteoblasts secrete bone osteoid forming trabeculae.
As cartilage in epiphysis grows rapidly, osteoclasts breaks down cartilage calcification on diaphysis edge, and osteoblasts extend medullary cavity
- -secondary ossification center
- -cartilage in epiphysis calcifies, and epiphyseal vessels invade
- -hyaline cartilage remains on epiphyseal surface (becomes articular cartilage) and epiphyseal plate, where growth continue for a few decades
What process causes bones to widen?
long bones- periosteum osteoblasts add bone outside, while endosteum osteoclasts remove bone from internal surface
Explain what is happening to the cells in hypertrophic zone
older chondrocytes enlarge and signal matrix to calcify
Explain what is happening to the cells in calcification zone
calcification and chondrocyte death.
- -secondary ossification center
- -cartilage in epiphysis calcifies, and epiphyseal vessels invade
- -hyaline cartilage remains on epiphyseal surface (becomes articular cartilage) and epiphyseal plate, where growth continue for a few decades
Explain what is happening to the cells in proliferation zone
chondrocytes at the top of stack divide quickly, pushing epiphysis away from diaphysis
What types of broken bones are there? (There are six listed in your text.)
- Simple fracture- broken bone that doesnt break the skin
- compound fracture- broken bone that breaks the skin
- comminuted-bone fragements into 3 or more pieces (common in brittle bone, old people)
- spiral-ragged break, from twisting
- depressed-broken bone pressed inward (skull fracture)
- compression-crushed bone (porous bone with extreme trauma)
- epiphyseal-epiphysis separates from diaphysis (during calcification of matrix)
- greenstick-bone breaks incompletely
What are the stages in the healing of a bone fracture and what happens in each stage?
- hemotoma formation-hemorrhaging occurs and blood released and clots
- fibrocartilaginous callus formation-new blood vessels grow in clot, peristeum and endosteum create fibers which make soft callus-->dense connective tissue with hyaline and fibrocartilage
- bony callus formation-trabeculae span callus
- bone remodeling-bony callus is remodeled, compact bone is laid down
- osteomalacia in children
- causes long bones to thicken and not lengthen enough, bowed legs, malformation of head and ribs.
- cause: insufficient vitamin D and/or calcium phosphate in diet
calicification does not occur and bones weaken and soften
- bone reabsorption outpaces deposition.
- caused later in life (estrogen deficiency, poor diet, insufficient exercise)
- paired parietal and temporal bones
- unpaired frontal, occipital, sphenoid and ethmoid bones
- forms forehead and roof of orbits
- supraorbital margin, supraorbital foramen (notch), glabella, frontonasal suture, frontal sinuses, anterior cranial fossa
Parietal bones and sutures
- make up most of superior and lateral sides of skull
- coronal suture (meet frontal bone)
- squamous suture (inferior, temporal bone)
- sagittal suture (meet each other)
- lambdoid suture (posterior, occipital bone)
small bones within sutures, irregular
- creates posterior cranium and cranial base, posterior cranial fossa
- labdoid suture (parietal bones) and occipitomastoid sutures (temporal bones)
- foramen magnum, occipital condyles (hypoglossal canal is medial superior), basiooccipital
- external surface (external occipital protuberance, external occipital crest, superior and inferior nuchal lines)
squamous, tympanic (eardrum), mastoid petrous (rocky) regions
- Squamous region- zygomatic process, mandibular fossa (temporomanibular joint)
- tympanic region- external acoustic meratus, styloid process
- mastoid region- mastoid process, stylomastoid foramen, mastoid air cells
- petrous- medial projection, formina (jugular, carotid canal, lacerum) internal acoustic meatus
- cranial floor, articulates with all other skull bones
- Sella turcica (holds pituitary gland), sphenoid sinuses
- Greater wings, lesser wings, pterygoid processes
- optic canal, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum
- anterior to sphenoid, posterior to nasal bones.
- Crista galli, perpendicular plate, cribriform plate
- superior and middle nasal conchae, lateral mass(contains ethmoidal air cells), orbital plates
- unpaired mandible and vomer
- paired, maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, inferior nasal conchae
- Lower jawbone, two upright rami
- mandibular angle, ramus of mandible
- coronoid process, manibular notch, mandibular condyle
- alveolar margin (anchors teeth), mandibular symphysis
- mandibular foramen (teeth), mental foramen (chin and skin)
inferior orbital fissure
- meet zygomatic processes of temporal bone(posterior), frontal bone (superior), maxilla (anterior)
form bridge of the nose
- deep groove forms lacrimal fossa with lacrimal sac that gathers tears
posterior part of hard palate, L shaped
inferior part of nasal septum
Inferior nasal conchae
curved bones, lateral to nasal cavity
4 special parts of the skull
Nasal cavity, orbits, paranasal sinuses, hyoid bone
- groove shaped air passageways from conchae form superior, middle, inferior meatuses (swirl air to moisten, warm and filter)
- septal cartilage
- 33 bones in fetus/infant, 26 in adult
- Major supporting ligaments are anterior (wide, prevents hyperextension) and posterior (narrow, weaker, prevents hyperflexion) longitudinal ligaments
- posterior ligamentum flavum connects vertebral lamina
Regions and curvature of vertebral column
- Cervical (7 bones)
- Thoracic (12 bones)
- Lumbar (5 bones)
- Sacral and Coccyx
General vertebral structure
- intervertebral foramen form from adjacent vertebrae
- body is wider laterally
- spinous process is bifid and directed posterior
- vertebral foramen is large
- has transverse foramen (for brain blood vessels)
- superior facets (superoposteriorly) inferior articular facets (inferoanteriorly)
- lacks body and spinous process
- lateral masses have superior articular facets which receive occipital condyles
- has knoblike dens (tooth)
- allows for shaking of head, rotate on axis
- last cervical vertebrae, has prominent spinous process
- not bifid
- superior/inferior costal facet (for ribs)
- spinous process points inferiorly
- transverse costal facets (tubercles of ribs)
- superior/inferior acticular facets lie in frontal plane (allow for rotation)
- acticular facets prevent twisting, allow flexion and extension
- sacral articular processes, sacral promotory, transverse ridges, anterior sacral foramina, ala, medial sacral crest, prosterior sacral formaina, lateral sacral crest,
- sacral canal, sacral hiatus
tailbone, mostly useless
thoracic vertabrae, ribs (laterally), sternum and costal cartilage (anteriorly)
- 12 pairs of ribs, 7 true (1-7), 5 false (8-10, 11,12 float)
costal margin, and infrasternal angle.
Abnormal spine curvature
- Scoliosis- abnormal lateral curvature
- Kyphosis-hunchback, exaggerated thoracic curvature
- Lordosis-accentuated lumbar curvature
Stenosis of lumbar spine
narrowing of vertebral canal in lumbar region, causes back pain
Axial skeleton throughout life
- ossification centers
- fontanelles-unossified remnants of membranes
right and left halves of the palate fail to join
- Clavicle and scalpulae
- attaches to lots of muscles groups
- only clavicle connects with axial skeleton allowing for free movement
- glenoid cavity is shallow allowing humerus free movement (also easy dislocation)
- sternal/acromial end, trapezoid line, conoid tubercle.
- transmit compression force from arm to axial skeleton
- thin, triangular, flatbone.
- spine can be felt, coracoid is attachement to bicep, infra/supraspinous fossae around spine.
- 30 bones
- arm, forearm and hand
- head (glenoid cavity), greater/lesser tubercle (rotator cuff muscles), deloid tuberosity (deltoid muscle), trochlea (ulna), capitulum (radius)
Ulna and radius- connected with interosseous membrane
- main elbow bone with humerus.
- olecranon ("elbow") process (with olecranon fossa), coronoid process (coronoid fossa when flexed)
- thin near elbow, widens to wrist
- proximal head, radial tuberosity, ulnar notch, styloid process
- radius contributes to wrist joint
Bones of carpus (wrist), metacarpus (palm), and phalanges (fingers)
Sally Left The Party, To Take Carmen Home
- 8 short bones.
- Scaphoid (boat-shaped), Lunate (moonlike), Triquetrum(triangular), Pisiform (pea-shaped), Trapezium (little table), Trapezoid (four sided), Capitate (head-shaped), Hamate (hooked)
- inflammation in carpal can squeeze median nerve causing carpal tunner
- 5 bones names 1-5 starting with thumb, bulbous head forms knuckle
phalanges of fingers
- minature long-bones.
- 3 sets (distal, middle, proximal), thumb is missing middle. Together called phalanx
- paired hip bones, coxal bone
- ilium, ischium and pubis
- acetabulum (deep notch)
- Articular surface, Sacroiliac joint, ala, iliac crest, anterior/posterior superior iliac spine
- greater sciatic notch, iliac fossa
- posterior, anterior, inferior gluteal lines (gluteal muscles)
- (4) L-shaped
- Ischial ramus, ischial spine, lesser sciatic notch, ischial tuberosity (where we sit, attachement of hamstring)
- v-shaped, horizontal
- superior and inferior rami, flat body, pubic crest and tubercle, obterator (closed-up) foramen, pubic arch, pubic symphysis
True pelvis v. false pelvis
- seperated by pubic crest,arcuate line, inferior efge of sacral ala and sacral promotory
- True (lesser) pelvis sits below in bowl
- False (greater) pelvis is part of abdomen
Pelvic structure and childbearing
women have wider shallower pelvis. Lighter, thinner, smoother, tilted forward.
Thigh, leg and foot.
Thigh (femur) and Patella
- Tibia-larger, connects with femur
- Fibula-proximally connects with tibia, mainly supports the ankle
- connect together proximally and distally in tibiofibular joints, interosseous membrane binds them in the middle
- head, lateral malleolus (articulates with talus bone)
- not weight bearing
Tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges
- 7 bones (tarsals)
- Talus-ankle (articulates with tibia and fibula at trochlea of talus)
- lateral cuboid, medial navicular
- medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms
5 bones metatarsals
phalanges of the foot
- 14 phalanges
- distal, middle and proximal phalanges
arches of the foot
- medial longitudinal arch - leaves no footprint, talus is keystone
- lateral longitudinal arch- very low, cuboid is keystone
- transverse arch- pillared by other arches, runs between sides of the foot
classification of joints
- Amount of movement allowed:
- synarthroses - immovable joints
- amphiarthroses - slightly movable joints
- diarthroses - freely moveable joints
- Structural classification:
- fibrous, cartilaginous, or synovial joints
bones are connected by fibrous tissue (dense connective tissue), slightly movable if anything.
sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
- "seams" only in skull, completely immovable. Short fibers
- fibrous tissue continuous with periosteum around bones
The connective fibers are longer, allow for more movement. So can be diathrotic or synarthrotic
Eg. interosseous membrane between radius and ulna allow for movement.
- "bolt", peg-in-socket
- only teeth, and connect with peridontal ligament
- lack a joint cavity and are not very movable
- Can be synchondroses or symphyses
- hyaline cartilage unites joint
- Epiphyseal plate and first ribs costal cartilage to sternum
- fibrocartilage unites the joint
- intervetebreal discs (can resist compression so are amphiarthroses) and pubic symphyses
- most movable joints of the body.
- articular cartilage (on bone ends)
- joint cavity (space to hold synovial fluid)
- articular capsule (two-layer cover to joint cavity, outer fibrous capsule is dense irregular tissue, inner synovial membrane that makes synovial fluid)
- synovial fluid- viscous lubricant, blood filtrate with glycoproteins, also inside articular cartilage
- reinforcing ligaments- bandlike ligaments can be capsular, or extra or intra capsular (articular capsule)
- nerves and vessels- for pain or determine positioning, blood vessels supply synovial membrane with filtrate
- sometimes articular disc/meniscus
Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
- Bursa-flattened fibrous sac with synovial fluid, covered by synovial membrane to protect friction
- Tendon sheaths- long bursa that protects tendons that go through joints, or high friction location.
Stabilizing of synovial joints
- Articular surfaces- usually not a factor unless the sockets are deep
- Ligaments-restrict movement, and the moreligaments the stronger the joint
- Muscle tone- there is a little tension on muscle around the joint, acts like a ligament
movement allowed by synovial joints
Gliding, angular or rotation.
gliding of synovial joints
occurs between flat surfaces that allow for gliding of bone over another. (carpals, flat articular processes of vertebrae)
Angular movements of synovial jonts
- Change the angle between joints.
- Flexion- bending that decreases the angle between bones. (head nod down, bowing, knee end)
- Extension/hyperextension- reverse of flexion, or increasing normal angle (nod up, bending backwards, unclenching fist)
- Adbuction- "moving away", movement of limb away from body, or laterally
- Adduction-"moving toward"
- Circumduction-"moving in a circle", combines flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
- Rotation- moving limb around long axis (head, sholder, hip)
special movements of synovial joints
- Supination and pronation- movement of radius around ulna
- Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion- Moving foot up (dorsal-ly) or down (plantar-ly)
- Inversion and Eversion-turning the sole of foot laterally
- Protraction and retraction-nonangular movements, anteriorly/posteriorly (jutting out of jaw)
- elevation and depression-lifting or lowing body part (chewing)
- opposition-movement of thumb to touch other fingers
Synovial Classification based on shape
- Plane joints- joint can only move along flat plane (intertarsal/carpal, and vertebral articular processes)
- Hinge joints- bone fits in trough shaped surface of another joint. uniaxial movement (elbow, fingers)
- Pivot joints-rounded bone fits in ring of another bone, plus ligament. uniaxial. (atlas and axis, head of radius in ulna)
- Condyloid joints- egg shaped head in oval concavity, no rotation, biaxial, (knuckles, wrist)
- Saddle joints-convex and concave areas on both bones, biaxial, (first carpometacarpal joint in thumb)
- Ball-and-Socket Joints- spherical head in round socket, allow movement on all axis
glenoid labrum (deepened firocartilage), coracohumeral ligament (support weight), glenohumeral ligaments (weakish), biceps bracchi muscle (support), rotator cuff (4 tendons and muscles, merges with joint capsule)
- only flexion and extension, trochlear notch with humerus, articular capsule (attaches humerus, ulna, anular "ringlike" ligament, thickens into radial and ulnar collateral ligaments)
- joint surfaces: radiocarpal joint (condyloid) and intercarpal/midcarpal (gliding) joint
- ligaments:palmar radiocarpal, dorsal radiocarpal, radial collateral, ulnar collateral ligaments
hip (coxal) joint
- femur in acetabulum, acetabular labrum (fibrocartilage)
- main ligaments: iliofemoral(anterior), pubofemoral (inferior), ischiofemoral (posterior) ligaments
- ligament of the head of the femur
- some stability from muscles and fleshy parts
- compound and bicondyloid joint
- a dozen bursae (subcutaneaous prepatellar bursa)
- medial and lateral menisci, articular capsule (posterior, lateral), patellar ligament and lateral/medial patellar ligament (anterior)
- fibular/tibial collateral ligaments, oblique/arcuate popliteal ligament (posterior),
- Anterior/posterior cruciate ligaments (intracapsular), tendons of many muscles
- hinge joint (allows dorsi- and plantar flexion)
- medial (deltoid) ligament
- anterior/posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments (lateral)
- anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments
temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
- mandibular fossa, articular tubercle (anterior), loose articular capsule, lateral ligament (support)
- saddle joint, various movements
- articular disc (divides cavity)
- four ligaments (anterior/posterior sternoclavicular, interclavicular, costoclavicular ligaments)
Sprain (joint disorder)
- support ligaments are stretched or torn
- slow to heal and difficult to surgically repair
dislocation/luxation (joint disorder)
- bones and joints are forced out of alignment
- need to be put back in alignment. easier to dislocate again
torn cartilage (joint disorder)
- cartilage hardly regenerates and arthroscopic surgery is needed. Maybe soon autologous cartilage implantation
- Osteoarthritis -old age wear and tear
- Rheumatoid arthritis- autoimmune disease
- Gouty arthritis- high uric acid levels