Anatomy Cards Test 1

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Anatomy Cards Test 1
2014-02-03 17:14:40
Anatomy Embryology Tissue Bone Axial

Cards for my anatomy class
Show Answers:

  1. integumentary (organ system)
    • Skin
    • Protects internal body from external environment. (bacteria, viruses, abrasions)
    • Sensitive to pressure and pain.
  2. Skeletal System
    • Provides supports/structure
    • Protects organs
  3. Muscular System
    Provides strength and mobility to body.
  4. Nervous System
    • Uses Electrical pulses for sensory detection in body. 
    • The brain
  5. Endocrine System
    Secretes and delivers hormones in response to the environment, for growth and other things hormones are good for
  6. Cardiovascular
    Pumps blood and lymph around the body to supply the body
  7. Respiratory System
    Provides oxygen and CO2 exchange in lungs to provide O2 for the blood
  8. Digestive System
    Breaks down food into absorbable units for use by the body. Secretes leftovers as feces.
  9. Urinary System
    Filters blood, secretes nitrogneous waste. Balances water and pH in circulatory system.
  10. Reproductive System
    • Different in males and females. 
    • Creates sex hormones, and reproductive organs.
  11. X Rays
    • Creates 2-D picture based on absorption of X-rays of different materials. 
    • Good for broken bones.
  12. CT or CAT Scans, DSA
    • Takes x-ray image from many angles to optimize for each organ. 
    • DSA is good for visualizing arteries. Takes pictures before and after contrast is injected
  13. PET
    • Detects radioactive isotope that can be injected into the bloodstream. Sees where blood is going.
    • Getting outdated
  14. Ultrasound
    • Uses soundwaves that bounce off different organs different to visualize shapes. None damaging and good for fetuses and other small things.
    • Poor resolution.
  15. MRI, MRS, fMRI
    Can see water saturation. Good for visualizing soft tissue (especially brains)

    • provides high resolution image.
    • MRS can determine chemical compound location and amounts
  16. Embryonic period
    1-8 weeks
  17. Fetal period
    9-38 weeks
  18. Week 1 of Pregnancy: Names and description of developments
    • Zygote - fertilized oocyte, moves to uterus,
    • Blastomeres - divides to 2, 4, 8 cell stage (2 days)
    • Morula (3 days)- 12-64 cells. cell are small. 
    • Blastocyst (4 days)- forms cavity with inner cell mass (fetus) and trophoblast (placenta) . implants in uterus wall
  19. Week 2 of pregnancy
    • Day 9- split into fluid sacs epiblast and hypoblast
    • epiblast - inside is amniotic fluid, outside is amnion
    • hypoblast- inside is yolk (becomes digestive tube)
  20. Week 3: three layered embryo
    Epiblast (ectoderm) migrate to primitive streak, push out hypoblast (forms endoderm), and cells between the two form mesoderm. 

    Mesodermal cells by primitive streak form notochord.
  21. Neurulation
    ectoderm inline with notochord start to form neural plate, which becomes neural groove. these cell induce neural crest cells (which break off and will form nerves)
  22. Week 3 mesoderm differentiation
    • Mesoderm is lateral to notochord
    • Somites- closest to notochord, paraxial mesoderm, forms first body segments (40 by week 5)
    • intermediate mesoderm-segments into  spherical shapes, attach to somites
    • lateral plate- split into two layers, forms coelum (space between for ventral cavity)
  23. Week 4 of pregnancy
    • Body starts to shape, when sides fold and form cylinder.
    • derivatives of germ layers form
  24. Dorsal Body Cavity
    Cranial and vertebral cavities
  25. Ventral Body cavity
    • Thoracic Cavity- Lungs and Heart
    • Abdominal Cavity- stomach, liver, intestines, pancreas, kidneys, and spleen
    • Pelvic cavity- Urinary tract, reproductive organs, and rectum
  26. Serous membrane
    • Parietal membrane- lines the inside of the body cavity (outer layer)
    • Visceral membrane- lines the internal organs
    • Serous fluid- fills space of the cavity allowing for organ movement and flexibility
  27. Anatomical Directional Terms
    • -Anterior (ventral) and Posterior (dorsal)
    • -Superior and inferior
    • -medial and lateral
    • -distal and proximal
    • -superficial and deep
  28. What is unique about epithelial tissue in terms of its cellularity?
    Almost entirely of cells, little connective tissue or extracellular material
  29. What specialized intercellular bridges or contacts stabilize this type of tissue? (In terms of polarity, note that an epithelial cell has an apical and a basal surface.)
    • Gap junctions- allow for passage of nutrients and signals to pass between cells
    • Tight Junctions- tightly hold together cells, do not allow anything to pass between the cells,
    • desmosomes- cells walls attach to each other with linker proteins, inside the cells attached to microtubules, allowing for diffusion of mechanical stress
  30. Which surface on an epithelial cell is associated with the basement membrane? What would be the function of the basement membrane?
    • The basal surface.
    • The basement membrane is a scaffold to hold the cells and makes it easy for cells to regenerate quickly. It also filters out the nutrients that can pass through from connective tissue to the epithelial cells
  31. Epithelia are avascular but innervated. What does this mean? Without blood vessels within the epithelia, how are epithelial cells nourished and oxygenated?
    • They do not have vascular tissue (blood capilaries) entering the cells. blood vessels are underneath in the connective tissue and nutrients travel from there. 
    • Nerve tissue permeated the epithelial cells and therefore allow for sensation  (pressure and pain senstivity)
  32. Why is it important that epithelia be able to regenerate on a regular basis?
    Because the cell often deal with high amount of friction and will fall off
  33. Simple Squamous Epithelium
    • Single layer, plate like cells, flat nucleus.
    • Good for filtering nutrients like in blood vessels and lung alveolar walls
  34. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    • Single layer, cube cells
    • good for secretion and absorption
    • secretory portions of small glands, kidney tubules, ovary surface
  35. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • Single layer, column-like, vertical eliptical nucleus
    • Absorption and secretion of mucus, enzymes,

    non-ciliated- in degestive tract, gall bladder,excretory ducts

    ciliated- bronchi, uterine tubes
  36. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
    • protection from abrasion.
    • outside of body and entering pores of body
  37. Transitional Epithelium
    • can be cuboidal or columner -depends on stretch
    • good for bladder and organs that need to stretch a lot
  38. Mesenchyme
    An embryonic cell from which all connective tissue orginates. Blood, bone, cartilage and connective tissue proper
  39. Areolar connective tissue
    Is loose connective tissue proper, all tissue created by fibroblasts

    • -fibers provide support for other tissues
    • -Hold body fluids
    • -defend body against infection
    • -store nutrients as fast
  40. types of areolar that provide support
    • Collagen - strong and abundant, resist tension
    • Reticular-delicate networks that support structures
    • elastic fibers- like rubber bands
  41. Dense connective tissue
    • Irregular- thicker collagen fibers. Fibers on different planes run in different directions, or are random (skin, surround some organs/joints)
    • regular- collagen fibers in same direction, (tendons, ligaments, bands or sheets)
    • elastic- good for stretching and recoiling (large arteries, bronchial tubes)
  42. Adipose tissue
    • fat cells.
    • High metabolic activity removing and releases lipids from blood 
    • in hypodermis and around hard working organs.
    • White and Brown (babies) tissue
  43. Cartilage
    • Firm but flexible. No blood vessels or nerves, made from Chondrocytes only
    • abundant extracellular matric of collagen, ground substance and lots of water
    • -hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage
  44. Bone
    • contains calcium salts, resists high tension and conpression
    • Osteoblasts and osteocytes (in cavities, lacunae
  45. Blood: What is the matrix that surrounds the blood cells like?
    • Only connective tissue because originates from mesenchyme cells.
    • Surrounded by plasma, and transports ofr blood, oxygen, nutrients, waste, respitory gases, hormones
  46. epidermis
    • top layer of skin.
    • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    • Provide protection, produce antibiotics and enzymes
    • Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum (only thick skin), stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale.
  47. dermis
    papilary layer- superficial 20%, connective tissue, create fingerprints, supply nutrients

    reticular layer- deep 80%. collagen is the thickest part of the skin resilience. irregular. has cleavage lines.
  48. hypodermis
    • Subcutaneous layer, superficial fascia. 
    • -areolar but mostly fatty connective tissue
    • -insulator, loosely attached skin to muscles
  49. What are the four types of cells make up the epidermis and where are they found?
    • Keratinocytes - produce keratin, filled with keratin, die and pushed to outer layer to be shed
    • Melanocytes- in Stratum basale, deepest layer, make melanin and pass it to keratinocytes.  activated by UV.
    • Merkel cells- in deepest layer, sensory
    • Langerhans cells- in Stratum spinosum (spiny layer) scattered among kertinocytes (mitosising), detecting foreign antigens
  50. What is the difference between thick and thin skin and where are the two types found?
    • Thick- on palm and sole of foot, has 5 layers
    • Thin- on body, has 4 layers
  51. Hair
    • Medulla (absent in fine hairs) large cells and hair spaces
    • cortex- around medulla, flattened cells
    • cuticle-single layer of cells that overlap like shingles

    Connective tissue papilla (hair papilla) protrudes into each bulb and stimulates hair growth and supplies nutrients
  52. Hair follicles are an appendage to the epidermis. How do they interact with the nervous system? What muscle is associated with the hair follicle and what does it do?
    the hair follicle receptor, a nerve ending wraps around the hair bulb .

    arrector pili muscle, from superficial dermis  to deep lying hair follicle. when relaxed hair lyes flat, when tense causes hair to stand up on end
  53. What does subcutaneous mean, as in subcutaneous injection
    Under the skin
  54. Skin Color
    • Melanin- made from tyrosine, varies in color, from malanocytes in stratum basale
    • Carotene- yellow-orange pigment from carrots and tomatoes
    • Hemoglobin- in Caucasians bc skin is clear. pinkish hue of oxygenated blood or hematoma's (bruises, clotted mass of blood)
  55. Nails
    • hard keratin- (opposed to soft keratin, it is more durable and does not flake off
    • under nail bed is deep epidermis only
    • lunula- white cresent of nail matrix where nail grows
    • proximal of nail body is the cuticle or eponychium
  56. Sebaceous glands
    • skins oil glands- simple branched alveolar
    • holocrene secrection- gland bursts to release oil (sebum)
  57. Describe the differences of eccrine and apocrine glands.
    • Eccrine- in hands, forehead, feet  produce true sweat. (99%water with salts and trace metabolic waste)
    • Apocrine- confined to axillary, anal and genitcal areas
  58. What causes the secretions to produce what we refer to as body odor?
    • from apocrine glands
    • true sweat mixed with fatty substances, and proteins
  59. Oil Glands
    • sebaceous glands
    • skins oil glands- simple branched
    • released into top third of hair follicle
    • alveolar holocrene secrection- gland bursts to release oil (sebum)
  60. What is acne?
    When sebum cant exit gland quickly enough, black if oxidized, pimple if infected with bacteria
  61. Vitiligo: Which skin pigment is missing in this situation?
    loss of melanocytes
  62. Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. Can you name other types of skin cancer?
    • Basal cell carcinoma- from stratum 
    • Squamous cell carcinoma- from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
  63. Where is cartilage found in the body?
    • Nose,
    • outer ear,
    • larynx (voice box) including epiglottis,
    • open air to respitory tract
    • edges of bones at joints (articular cartilages) articular discs
    • pelvic bone (pubic symphysis)
    • rib attachment to sternum (costal cartilages),
    • in the discs of the vertabrae
  64. hyaline cartilage
    • most prevalent in the body, chondrocytes are spherical and is located in lacuna (pit in matrix)
    • -made of collagen unit fibril
  65. elastic catilage
    • outer ear and epiglottis
    • , contains fibrils and elastic fibers
  66. fibrocartilage
    • resists compression and tension, 
    • alternating rows of thick collagen and chondrocytes surrounded by cartilage martix.
    • in an anulus fibrosus portion of vertebral discs, articular portions of some joints, pubic symphysus
  67. Composition of Bone
    bone tissue, nerve tissue (nerves), blood tissue (blood vessels), cartilage tissue (articular cartilage), epithelial tissue
  68. Compact bone
  69. Spongy bone
  70. Where are the two types of bone marrow found and how are they different
  71. Each bone has membrane covering the external and internal surfaces. Do you know which membrane covers which surface?
  72. Give a specific example of how the bones accomplish support
    They support the body allowing it  stand upright
  73. Give a specific example of how the bones accomplish protection
    Ribs protect the organs from damage
  74. Give a specific example of how the bones accomplish movement
    They are the levers that the muscles can use to move
  75. Give a specific example of how the bones accomplish mineral storage
    They store minerals like calcium and phosphate, released when the body needs it
  76. Give a specific example of how the bones accomplish blood-cell formation
    contain red (blood cells) and yellow bone (fat storage) marrow
  77. compact (dense) bone
    outside of bones that is smooth
  78. spongy (cancellous) bone
    • trabecular bone
    • honeycomb of flat peices called trabeculae, open spaces contain bone marrow

    tarbeculae contain lamellae and osteocytes, but not osteons or blood vessels
  79. long bone
    • more long than fat. Most bones in limbs are long bones. Have distinct shafts (diaphysis) and ends (epiphysis).
    • Femur, toes and finger bones
  80. short bone
    Are cube-shaped, in wrist and ankle
  81. sesamoid bone
    • shaped like sesame seeds, short bones that grow in a tendon (kneecap or patella) 
    • -alter the direction of pull of a tendon
    • -reduce friction and modify pressure
  82. flat bone
    • thin flattened and curved
    • ribs, sternum, scapula (shoulder blade)
  83. irregular bone
    • Weird shapes
    • -vertabrae, hip bones
  84. Structure of Long Bones
    • diaphysis, epiphysis, epipheseal line
    • blood vessels- nutrient artery/vein, nutrient foramen
    • Medullary cavity- very center of diaphysis, no bone tissue, only yellow marrow

    Membranes- Periosteum outer surface, secured with perforating fibers (Sharpey's fibers). Endosteum (inner surface) covers trabeculae
  85. Microscopic Structure of Bone: The Osteon
    • Haversian system
    • a group of concentric tubes, lamellae.
  86. osteoblasts
  87. osteocytes
  88. osteoclasts
  89. canaliculi
    thin tubes that connecting lacunae, which connect nutrient passages
  90. Haversian canal
    • center of Osteon (haversian system)
    • -lined by endosteum, supplies nutrients to bone and nerve cells.
  91. Haversian system (osteon)
  92. lamellae
    • concentric rings that make up osteon.
    • between osteons are interstitial lamellae from old osteons
    • circumferential lamellae
  93. lacunae
    small cavities between the solid lamella
  94. osteocytes
    • spider-shaped, mature bone cells
    • located in lacunae
    • spider legs are in thin tubes, canaliculi, that connnect lacunae and allow for nutrient diffusion.
    • They maintain the bone matrix
  95. Volkmann’s canal
    Perforating canals, at right angles to Haversian system to connect it to the peristeum
  96. Chemical composition of bone
    • 35% organic material - cells, fibers, ground substance, make bone fleixible and resist stretching and twisting
    • 65% inorganic- calcium phosphate, make it strong
  97. Intramembraneous ossification
    • bones are generated directly from mesenchyme. Only in the skull.
    • mesenchymal cells cluster into connective tissue membrane, form osteoblasts, secret bone matrix to become osteocytes
  98. Endochondral Ossification
    First bones are made of hydraline cartilage and replaced by bones. Occurs from 2nd month of fetal development to adulthood
  99. bone collar formation
    perichondrium around diaphysis is invaded by blood vessels becoming peristeum. osteoblasts in persteum lay collar of bone tissue
  100. cavitation of cartilage
    • catilage surround diaphysis center calcifies, causing chonrocytes and catilage matrix to die and disintegrate leaving cavities. 
    • Bones are supported by the bone collar
  101. periosteal bud invades
    • Invasion of periosteal bud and cells that form bone marrow.
    • Osteoclasts erode calcified cartilage, osteoblasts secrete bone osteoid forming trabeculae.
  102. medullary cavitation
    As cartilage in epiphysis grows rapidly, osteoclasts breaks down cartilage calcification on diaphysis edge, and osteoblasts extend medullary cavity
  103. epiphyses ossify
    • -secondary ossification center
    • -cartilage in epiphysis calcifies, and epiphyseal vessels invade
    • -hyaline cartilage remains  on epiphyseal surface (becomes articular cartilage) and epiphyseal plate, where growth continue for a few decades
  104. What process causes bones to widen?
    long bones- periosteum osteoblasts add bone outside, while endosteum osteoclasts remove bone from internal surface
  105. Explain what is happening to the cells in hypertrophic zone
    older chondrocytes  enlarge and signal matrix to calcify
  106. Explain what is happening to the cells in calcification zone
    calcification and chondrocyte death.
  107. epiphyses ossify
    • -secondary ossification center
    • -cartilage in epiphysis calcifies, and epiphyseal vessels invade
    • -hyaline cartilage remains  on epiphyseal surface (becomes articular cartilage) and epiphyseal plate, where growth continue for a few decades
  108. Explain what is happening to the cells in proliferation zone
    chondrocytes at the top of stack divide quickly, pushing epiphysis away from diaphysis
  109. What types of broken bones are there? (There are six listed in your text.)
    • Simple fracture- broken bone that doesnt break the skin
    • compound fracture- broken bone that breaks the skin
    • comminuted-bone fragements into 3 or more pieces (common in brittle bone, old people)
    • spiral-ragged break, from twisting
    • depressed-broken bone pressed inward (skull fracture)
    • compression-crushed bone (porous bone with extreme trauma)
    • epiphyseal-epiphysis separates from diaphysis (during calcification of matrix)
    • greenstick-bone breaks incompletely
  110. What are the stages in the healing of a bone fracture and what happens in each stage?
    • hemotoma formation-hemorrhaging occurs and blood released and clots
    • fibrocartilaginous callus formation-new blood vessels grow in clot, peristeum and endosteum create fibers which make soft callus-->dense connective tissue with hyaline and fibrocartilage
    • bony callus formation-trabeculae span callus
    • bone remodeling-bony callus is remodeled, compact bone is laid down
  111. Rickets
    • osteomalacia in children
    • causes long bones to thicken and not lengthen enough, bowed legs, malformation of head and ribs. 
    • cause: insufficient vitamin D and/or calcium phosphate in diet
  112. Osteomalacia:
    calicification does not occur and bones weaken and soften
  113. Osteoporosis:
    • bone reabsorption outpaces deposition.
    • caused later in life (estrogen deficiency, poor diet, insufficient exercise)
  114. Cranial bones
    • (8)
    • paired parietal and temporal bones
    • unpaired frontal, occipital, sphenoid and ethmoid bones
  115. Frontal bone
    • forms forehead and roof of orbits
    • supraorbital margin, supraorbital foramen (notch), glabella, frontonasal suture, frontal sinuses, anterior cranial fossa
  116. Parietal bones and sutures
    • make up most of superior and lateral sides of skull
    • coronal suture (meet frontal bone)
    • squamous suture (inferior, temporal bone)
    • sagittal suture (meet each other)
    • lambdoid suture (posterior, occipital bone)
  117. sutural bone
    small bones within sutures, irregular
  118. Occipital bone
    • creates posterior cranium and cranial base, posterior cranial fossa
    • labdoid suture (parietal bones) and occipitomastoid sutures (temporal bones)
    • foramen magnum, occipital condyles (hypoglossal canal is medial superior), basiooccipital
    • external surface (external occipital protuberance, external occipital crest, superior and inferior nuchal lines)
  119. Temporal bones
    squamous, tympanic (eardrum), mastoid petrous (rocky) regions
    • Squamous region- zygomatic process, mandibular fossa (temporomanibular joint)
    • tympanic region- external acoustic meratus, styloid process
    • mastoid region- mastoid process, stylomastoid foramen, mastoid air cells
    • petrous- medial projection, formina (jugular, carotid canal, lacerum) internal acoustic meatus
  120. sphenoid bone
    • cranial floor, articulates with all other skull bones
    • Sella turcica (holds pituitary gland), sphenoid sinuses
    • Greater wings, lesser wings, pterygoid processes
    • optic canal, superior orbital fissure, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale, foramen spinosum
  121. ethmoid bone
    • anterior to sphenoid, posterior to nasal bones.
    • Crista galli, perpendicular plate, cribriform plate
    • superior and middle nasal conchae, lateral mass(contains ethmoidal air cells), orbital plates
  122. Facial bones
    • (14)
    • unpaired mandible and vomer
    • paired, maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, inferior nasal conchae
  123. Mandible
    • Lower jawbone, two upright rami
    • mandibular angle, ramus of mandible
    • coronoid process, manibular notch, mandibular condyle
    • alveolar margin (anchors teeth), mandibular symphysis
    • mandibular foramen (teeth), mental foramen (chin and skin)
  124. maxillary bones
    inferior orbital fissure
  125. zygomatic bones
    • cheekbones
    • meet zygomatic processes of temporal bone(posterior), frontal bone (superior), maxilla (anterior)
  126. nasal bone
    form bridge of the nose 
  127. Lacrimal bones
    • deep groove forms lacrimal fossa with lacrimal sac that gathers tears
    • lacrima=tear
  128. Palatine bone
    posterior part of hard palate, L shaped
  129. Vomer
    inferior part of nasal septum
  130. Inferior nasal conchae
    curved bones, lateral to nasal cavity
  131. 4 special parts of the skull
    Nasal cavity, orbits, paranasal sinuses, hyoid bone
  132. Nasal Cavity
    • groove shaped air passageways from conchae form superior, middle, inferior meatuses (swirl air to moisten, warm and filter)
    • septal cartilage
  133. orbits
  134. paranasal sinuses
  135. The hyoid bone
  136. Vertebral column
    • 33 bones in fetus/infant, 26 in adult 
    • Major supporting ligaments are anterior (wide, prevents hyperextension) and posterior (narrow, weaker, prevents hyperflexion) longitudinal ligaments
    • posterior ligamentum flavum connects vertebral lamina
  137. intervertebral discs
  138. Regions and curvature of vertebral column
    • Cervical (7 bones)
    • Thoracic (12 bones)
    • Lumbar (5 bones)
    • Sacral and Coccyx
  139. General vertebral structure
    • intervertebral foramen form from adjacent vertebrae
  140. Cervical vertebrae
    • C1-C7
    • body is wider laterally
    • spinous process is bifid and directed posterior
    • vertebral foramen is large
    • has transverse foramen (for brain blood vessels)
    • superior facets (superoposteriorly) inferior articular facets (inferoanteriorly)
  141. C-Atlas
    • lacks body and spinous process 
    • lateral masses have superior articular facets which receive occipital condyles
  142. C2- Axis
    • has knoblike dens (tooth)
    • allows for shaking of head, rotate on axis
  143. C7-vertebra prominens
    • last cervical vertebrae, has prominent spinous process
    • not bifid
  144. Thoracic vertabrae
    • superior/inferior costal facet (for ribs)
    • spinous process points inferiorly
    • transverse costal facets (tubercles of ribs)
    • superior/inferior acticular facets lie in frontal plane (allow for rotation)
  145. lumbar vertebrae
    • acticular facets prevent twisting, allow flexion and extension
  146. sacrum
    • sacral articular processes, sacral promotory, transverse ridges, anterior sacral foramina, ala, medial sacral crest, prosterior sacral formaina, lateral sacral crest,
    • sacral canal, sacral hiatus
  147. coccyx
    tailbone, mostly useless
  148. Thoracic cage
    thoracic vertabrae, ribs (laterally), sternum and costal cartilage (anteriorly)
  149. Sternum
  150. Ribs
    • 12 pairs of ribs, 7 true (1-7), 5 false (8-10, 11,12 float)

    costal margin, and infrasternal angle.
  151. Typical rib structure
  152. Abnormal spine curvature
    • Scoliosis- abnormal lateral curvature 
    • Kyphosis-hunchback, exaggerated thoracic curvature
    • Lordosis-accentuated lumbar curvature
  153. Stenosis of lumbar spine
    narrowing of vertebral canal in lumbar region, causes back pain
  154. Axial skeleton throughout life
    • ossification centers
    • fontanelles-unossified remnants of membranes
  155. cleft palate
    right and left halves of the palate fail to join
  156. pectoral girdle
    • Clavicle and scalpulae
    • attaches to lots of muscles groups
    • only clavicle connects with axial skeleton allowing for free movement
    • glenoid cavity is shallow allowing humerus free movement (also easy dislocation)
  157. clavicles
    • sternal/acromial end, trapezoid line, conoid tubercle.
    • transmit compression force from arm to axial skeleton
  158. Scalpulae
    • thin, triangular, flatbone. 
    • spine can be felt, coracoid is attachement to bicep, infra/supraspinous  fossae around spine.
  159. Upper limb
    • 30 bones
    • arm, forearm and hand
  160. Arm
    • Humerus
    • head (glenoid cavity), greater/lesser tubercle (rotator cuff muscles), deloid tuberosity (deltoid muscle), trochlea (ulna), capitulum (radius)
  161. Forearm
    Ulna and radius- connected with interosseous membrane
  162. Ulna
    • main elbow bone with humerus.
    • olecranon ("elbow") process (with olecranon fossa), coronoid process (coronoid fossa when flexed)
  163. radius
    • thin near elbow, widens to wrist
    • proximal head, radial tuberosity, ulnar notch, styloid process 
    • radius contributes to wrist joint
  164. Hand
    Bones of carpus (wrist), metacarpus (palm), and phalanges (fingers)
  165. Carpus
    Sally Left The Party, To Take Carmen Home
    • 8 short bones.
    • Scaphoid (boat-shaped), Lunate (moonlike), Triquetrum(triangular), Pisiform (pea-shaped), Trapezium (little table), Trapezoid (four sided), Capitate (head-shaped), Hamate (hooked)
    • inflammation in carpal can squeeze median nerve causing carpal tunner
  166. Metacarpus
    • 5 bones names 1-5 starting with thumb, bulbous head forms knuckle
  167. phalanges of fingers
    • minature long-bones.
    • 3 sets (distal, middle, proximal), thumb is missing middle. Together called phalanx
  168. Pelvic girdle
    • paired hip bones, coxal bone
    • ilium, ischium and pubis
    • acetabulum (deep notch)
  169. Ilium
    • Articular surface, Sacroiliac joint, ala, iliac crest, anterior/posterior superior iliac spine
    •  greater sciatic notch, iliac fossa
    • posterior, anterior, inferior gluteal lines (gluteal muscles)
  170. Ischium
    • (4) L-shaped
    • Ischial ramus, ischial spine, lesser sciatic notch, ischial tuberosity (where we sit, attachement of hamstring)
  171. Pubis
    • v-shaped, horizontal
    • superior and inferior rami, flat body, pubic crest and tubercle, obterator (closed-up) foramen, pubic arch, pubic symphysis
  172. True pelvis v. false pelvis
    • seperated by pubic crest,arcuate line, inferior efge of sacral ala and sacral promotory
    • True (lesser) pelvis sits below in bowl
    • False (greater) pelvis is part of abdomen
  173. Pelvic structure and childbearing
    women have wider shallower pelvis. Lighter, thinner, smoother, tilted forward.
  174. Lower limb
    Thigh, leg and foot.
  175. Thigh (femur)  and Patella
  176. Leg
    • Tibia-larger, connects with femur
    • Fibula-proximally connects with tibia, mainly supports the ankle
    • connect together proximally and distally in tibiofibular joints, interosseous membrane binds them in the middle
  177. Tibia
  178. Fibula
    • head, lateral malleolus (articulates with talus bone)
    • not weight bearing
  179. Foot
    Tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges
  180. Tarsus
    • 7 bones (tarsals)
    • Talus-ankle (articulates with tibia and fibula at trochlea of talus)
    • calcaneous-heal
    • lateral cuboid, medial navicular
    • medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms

  181. Metatarsus
    5 bones metatarsals
  182. phalanges of the foot
    • 14 phalanges
    • distal, middle and proximal phalanges
  183. arches of the foot
    • medial longitudinal arch - leaves no footprint, talus is keystone
    • lateral longitudinal arch- very low, cuboid is keystone 
    • transverse arch- pillared by other arches, runs between sides of the foot
  184. classification of joints
    • Amount of movement allowed:
    • synarthroses - immovable joints
    • amphiarthroses - slightly movable joints
    • diarthroses - freely moveable joints

    • Structural classification:
    • fibrous, cartilaginous, or synovial joints
  185. fibrous joints
    bones are connected by fibrous tissue (dense connective tissue), slightly movable if anything.

    sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
  186. Sutures
    • "seams" only in skull, completely immovable. Short fibers
    • fibrous tissue continuous with periosteum around bones
  187. Syndesmoses
    The connective fibers are longer, allow for more movement. So can be diathrotic or synarthrotic

    Eg. interosseous membrane between radius and ulna allow for movement.
  188. Gomphoses
    • "bolt", peg-in-socket
    • only teeth, and connect with peridontal ligament
  189. Cartilaginous joints
    • lack a joint cavity and are not very movable 
    • Can be synchondroses or symphyses
  190. Synchrondroses
    • hyaline cartilage unites joint
    • Epiphyseal plate and first ribs costal cartilage to sternum
  191. Symphyses
    • fibrocartilage unites the joint
    • intervetebreal discs (can resist compression so are amphiarthroses) and pubic symphyses
  192. Synovial joints
    • most movable joints of the body. 
    • articular cartilage (on bone ends)
    • joint cavity (space to hold synovial fluid)
    • articular capsule (two-layer cover to joint cavity, outer fibrous capsule is dense irregular tissue, inner synovial membrane that makes synovial fluid)
    • synovial fluid- viscous lubricant, blood filtrate with glycoproteins, also inside articular cartilage
    • reinforcing ligaments- bandlike ligaments can be capsular, or extra or intra capsular (articular capsule)
    • nerves and vessels- for pain or determine positioning, blood vessels supply synovial membrane with filtrate
    • sometimes articular disc/meniscus
  193. Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
    • Bursa-flattened fibrous sac with synovial fluid, covered by synovial membrane to protect friction
    • Tendon sheaths- long bursa that protects tendons that go through joints, or high friction location.
  194. Stabilizing of synovial joints
    • Articular surfaces- usually not a factor unless the sockets are deep
    • Ligaments-restrict movement, and the moreligaments the stronger the joint
    • Muscle tone- there is a little tension on muscle around the joint, acts like a ligament
  195. movement allowed by synovial joints
    Gliding, angular or rotation.
  196. gliding of synovial joints
    occurs between flat surfaces that allow for gliding of bone over another. (carpals, flat articular processes of vertebrae)
  197. Angular movements of synovial jonts
    • Change the angle between joints.
    • Flexion- bending that decreases the angle between bones. (head nod down, bowing, knee end)
    • Extension/hyperextension- reverse of flexion, or increasing normal angle (nod up, bending backwards, unclenching fist)
    • Adbuction- "moving away", movement of limb away from body, or laterally
    • Adduction-"moving toward"
    • Circumduction-"moving in a circle", combines flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
    • Rotation- moving limb around long axis (head, sholder, hip)
  198. special movements of synovial joints
    • Supination and pronation- movement of radius around ulna
    • Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion- Moving foot up (dorsal-ly) or down (plantar-ly)
    • Inversion and Eversion-turning the sole of foot laterally
    • Protraction and retraction-nonangular movements, anteriorly/posteriorly (jutting out of jaw)
    • elevation and depression-lifting or lowing body part (chewing)
    • opposition-movement of thumb to touch other fingers
  199. Synovial Classification based on shape
    • Plane joints- joint can only move along flat plane (intertarsal/carpal, and vertebral articular processes)
    • Hinge joints- bone fits in trough shaped surface of another joint. uniaxial movement (elbow, fingers)
    • Pivot joints-rounded bone fits in ring of another bone, plus ligament. uniaxial. (atlas and axis, head of radius in ulna)
    • Condyloid joints- egg shaped head in oval concavity, no rotation, biaxial, (knuckles, wrist)
    • Saddle joints-convex and concave areas on both bones, biaxial, (first carpometacarpal joint in thumb)
    • Ball-and-Socket Joints- spherical head in round socket, allow movement on all axis
  200. Shoulder joint
    glenoid labrum (deepened firocartilage), coracohumeral ligament (support weight), glenohumeral ligaments (weakish), biceps bracchi muscle (support), rotator cuff (4 tendons and muscles, merges with joint capsule)
  201. Elbow joint
    • only flexion and extension, trochlear notch with humerus, articular capsule (attaches  humerus, ulna, anular "ringlike" ligament, thickens into  radial and ulnar collateral ligaments)
  202. Wrist joint
    • joint surfaces: radiocarpal joint (condyloid) and intercarpal/midcarpal (gliding) joint
    • ligaments:palmar radiocarpal, dorsal radiocarpal, radial collateral, ulnar collateral ligaments
  203. hip (coxal) joint
    • femur in acetabulum, acetabular labrum (fibrocartilage)
    • main ligaments: iliofemoral(anterior), pubofemoral (inferior), ischiofemoral (posterior) ligaments
    • ligament of the head of the femur
    • some stability from muscles and fleshy parts
  204. Knee joint
    • compound and bicondyloid joint
    • a dozen bursae (subcutaneaous prepatellar bursa)
    • medial and lateral menisci, articular capsule (posterior, lateral),  patellar ligament and lateral/medial patellar ligament (anterior)
    • fibular/tibial collateral ligaments, oblique/arcuate popliteal ligament (posterior),
    • Anterior/posterior cruciate ligaments (intracapsular), tendons of many muscles
  205. ankle joint
    • hinge joint (allows dorsi- and plantar flexion)
    • medial (deltoid) ligament
    • anterior/posterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments (lateral)
    • anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments
  206. temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
    • mandibular fossa, articular tubercle (anterior), loose articular capsule, lateral ligament (support)
  207. sternoclavicular joint
    • saddle joint, various movements
    • articular disc (divides cavity)
    • four ligaments (anterior/posterior sternoclavicular, interclavicular, costoclavicular ligaments)
    • muscles
  208. Sprain (joint disorder)
    • support ligaments are stretched or torn
    • slow to heal and difficult to surgically repair
  209. dislocation/luxation (joint disorder)
    • bones and joints are forced out of alignment
    • need to be put back in alignment. easier to dislocate again
  210. torn cartilage (joint disorder)
    • cartilage hardly regenerates and arthroscopic surgery is needed. Maybe soon autologous cartilage implantation
  211. arthritis
    • Osteoarthritis -old age wear and tear
    • Rheumatoid arthritis- autoimmune disease
    • Gouty arthritis- high uric acid levels