Card Set Information
When DNA molecule is duplicated?
When RNA polymerase binds to DNA?
A replication fork has a template for DNA base sequence GCTA that will order a base sequence of:
mRNA transcribes DNA message during
during Transcription, thymine is replaced with
During transcription a DNA sequence of GTACGA will order an RNA base sequence of
3 adjacent bases on mRNA tht encode addition of a particular amino acid
The start codon AUG codes for
the role of tRNA is to
carry anticondon that can base pair with a codon
The type of RNA taht carries the amino acid to the ribosome is
Amino acids are linked creating
Amino acids are carried to the ribosomes where _____are made?
The sum total of all of a cells DNA
small DNA structures that carry nonessential genes
plasmids and conjugation are related by:
conjugation-they transfer a copy of themselves to another bacterial cell
R Factors have multiple ______
Five types of mutations are:
a base change in DNA of GGAATCGAT to TAGCTAAGG is an example of a mutation called
a base change in DNA of CCATGCA toCCAAGCA is an example of
spontaneous mutations occur
Induced mutations are caused by intentional
chemical, physical or biological changes
What are 3 forms of genetic exchange aomong bacteria?
When DNA leaves one cell and exists in an extracellular environment then it is taken up by another cell where it may become incorporated in the genome?
viruses inject their DNA into bacterium and use the bacteria's metabolic properties to produce more viruses
what occurs with bacteriophages?
_____is carried out by conjugative plasmids. (plasmids xfer themselves to another cell)
Frederick Griffith performed the first demonstration of
Frederick GRiffiths experimented with mice by injecting them with
heat inactivated 'S' strain of streptococcus phneumonae
Hospital acquired infections are called?
taking of DNA from 1 cell, manipulating it invitro and then putting it in another cell is called?
recombinant DNA technology
occurs outside a living cell
The process of obtaining a larege number of copies of a gene
A DNA molecule that a host cell can replicate
non coding sections of DNA that enzymes have cut out after the gene has been transcribed into mRNA
an enzyme that used RNA as a template to make a complementary strand of DNA
What are the 3 charachteristics of good cloning?
1-DNA molecules that can replicate b/c they have a region called origin of replication.
2-Small so that thier replication does not tax the host cell's metabollic capacity
3-it has cells that identify host cells with the vector
What is used to cut out genes (cut the cloning vector)
a process that seals the fragment of DNA with the gene to be cloned into the cut
What are the 4 ways to put Recombinant DNA into a Host Cell?
When Dna leaves 1 cell and exists extracellular then is taken up by another cell where it may become part of the genome
DNA from a virus
inserts DNA into an animal cell directly by using a
introduces DNA into an bacterial cell by suspending cells into a solution of DNA and applying high voltage electrical impulses
One way to find the right gene to insert is by
where a short DNA strand that is complimentary to mRNA is tagged with
a probe (usually radioactive isotope)
List 4 hosts that are used for Recombinant DNA
E. Coli (first used)
the sum of all chemical activities that take place within an organism
aerobic metabolism takes place in the presence of
During _________ a DNA base sequence of ATCC will order a base sequence of ATCC
During _____a DNA sequence of GCTCA will order an RNA base sequence of GCUCA
What happens during transcription?
uracil replaces thymine
proteins are synthesized during
The role of tRNA is to carry _______to ribosomes
changes in a cell's DNA
plasmids are transferred to cells by
genetic recombination involves artificial and
what are 3 forms of genetic exchange among bacteria?
transformation, conjugation, and transduction
what tpe of genetic exchange occurs when DNA leaves one cell and exists for a time in the extracellular environment, then is taken up by another cell where it may become incorporated into the genome?
who first experimented with transformation?
Recomginant DNA technology occurs in vitro. This means it occurs
outside living cells
transformation transfection microinjection and electroporation are all means to put _______ molecules into host cells
Transfection is DNA from a
Inserting DNA into animal cells directly using a pipette is called
DNA that is introduced into bacterial, animal, or plant cells by applying high voltage electrical impulses is called
Microorganisms grow by
in binary fission cleavage near the midpoint forms into ______daughter cells of approximate equal size
doubling time is hte time it takes for a population to divide and produce
2 new cells
the doubling time for E.Coli is about ________
What are the 4 phases of bacteria growth that occur in a batch culture?
no growth, the bacterial cells are getting used to thier new environment
1 cell increases to 2 cells, then 4, then 8, then 16
no growth, equal births and deaths as nutrients decline
decline in population
a batch culture means that population grows in a
test tube/flask/lab setting
a mass of cells growing in agar
cells in the center of colonies are usually in the stationary or death phase because they have
ran out of nutrients
cells on the edge of a colony are in the exponential phase because they have plenty of
when making a slide from a colony, where should you take the cells from? the edge of the colony or the center?
nutritional needs are related to the types of elements of which a bacterial cell is built of. (what it is made up of)
List 4 major elements
carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus (as well as sulfur)
Thermophiles grow at
high temps above 50*C
mesophiles grow best at
moderate temps 37*C
Psychrophiles grow at cold temps
The spoiling of food in a refrigerator is ussually due to the action of
most prokaryotes grow best at
slightly alkaline pH
all microorganisms need liquid_______ to grow
Fluid within the cytoplasm moves out causing cell membrane to pull away from the cell wall (can collapse)
higher solute concentration outside the cell compared to inside of cell
a spectrophotometer measures the _______of a culture
the Petroff-Hauser chamber is used to
Sterilization refers to the ________of all microbial life
disinfectant is the treatment that reduces the number of _______to a level at which they pose no danger of disease.
Decontamination renders a surface that has been heavily exposed to microorganisms safe to
antisepsis kills microorganisms on
In sterilization what are the 3 things we must know?
1-the D-value of treatment (unit of time to kill micro)
2-number of cells present
3-desired degree of certainty that no cells will be alive at end of treatment
the canning industry must know how long food must be heated for it to be free of bacteria, especiall for
the endospores of the bacterium_________can cause botulism
Moist heat sterilizes by _________proteins
Boiling water does not work on
vegetative cells of thermophilic bacteria or endospores
An autoclave usually maintains a pressure of ______psi at a temp of ______C.
Pasteurization kills certain microorganisms by denaturing proteins and eliminates pathogens that slow the spoilage of
wine, beer, dairy, milk
refridgeration preserves food by
slowing microbial growth or slowing chemical reactions
UV light sterilized by damaging
Filtration removes the cellular microorganisms but not
High concentrations of salt or sugar are used to preserve certain foods by
drawing out water
Chemicals that kill microorganisms are called
Joseph Lister used phenols to kill most microorganisms. He called it
carbolic acid, cloraseptic
Germistats are chemicals that inhibit
a tincture of iodine contains
soaps/detergents that physically remove microbes
what is the standard treatment for pasteurizing milk?
heating to 63*C for 30 mins or 72*c for 15 mins
How does vinegar prevent the growth of most mircroorganisms
provides a low pH
How does salting preserve food?
drawing out water
What is calcium propionate?
antifungal agent added to bread to prevent mold/mildew growth
what are the 4 phases of bacterial growth
lag phase, exponential phase, stationary phase, death
a population that grows in a closed container is called a
Halophiles can withstand extremely high _____concentrations
psychropiles grow best at a temp of _____C
a spectrometer measures the _______ of a culture
the petroff hauser chamber is used to
what term describes a treatment that destroys all microbial life?
what term describes a treatment that is specifically meant to kill microorganisms on living tissue?
boiling water doesnt work on destroying vegetatvie cells of thermophilic bacteria or
does pasteurization kill all microorganisms
cold slows or stops microbial growth by
slowing chemical reactions
list 2 examples of surfactatants
One example of bacteria that produce endospores aht can cause botuslism is
bacterium clostridium botulinum
what is the name of the antifungal agent added to bread to prevent mildew/mold growth?