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2010-07-06 00:36:38


ch 6789
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  1. When DNA molecule is duplicated?
  2. When RNA polymerase binds to DNA?
  3. A replication fork has a template for DNA base sequence GCTA that will order a base sequence of:
  4. mRNA transcribes DNA message during
  5. during Transcription, thymine is replaced with
  6. During transcription a DNA sequence of GTACGA will order an RNA base sequence of
  7. 3 adjacent bases on mRNA tht encode addition of a particular amino acid
  8. The start codon AUG codes for
  9. Translation is
    protein synthesis
  10. the role of tRNA is to
    carry anticondon that can base pair with a codon
  11. The type of RNA taht carries the amino acid to the ribosome is
  12. Amino acids are linked creating
    peptide bonds
  13. Amino acids are carried to the ribosomes where _____are made?
  14. The sum total of all of a cells DNA
  15. small DNA structures that carry nonessential genes
  16. plasmids and conjugation are related by:
    conjugation-they transfer a copy of themselves to another bacterial cell
  17. R Factors have multiple ______
    drug resistance
  18. Five types of mutations are:
    • base substitution
    • deletion
    • inversion
    • transposition
    • duplication
  19. a base change in DNA of GGAATCGAT to TAGCTAAGG is an example of a mutation called
    inversion mutation
  20. a base change in DNA of CCATGCA toCCAAGCA is an example of
    base substitution
  21. spontaneous mutations occur
  22. Induced mutations are caused by intentional
    chemical, physical or biological changes
  23. What are 3 forms of genetic exchange aomong bacteria?
    • transformation
    • transduction
    • conjugation
  24. When DNA leaves one cell and exists in an extracellular environment then it is taken up by another cell where it may become incorporated in the genome?
  25. viruses inject their DNA into bacterium and use the bacteria's metabolic properties to produce more viruses
  26. what occurs with bacteriophages?
  27. _____is carried out by conjugative plasmids. (plasmids xfer themselves to another cell)
  28. Frederick Griffith performed the first demonstration of
    bacterial transformation
  29. Frederick GRiffiths experimented with mice by injecting them with
    heat inactivated 'S' strain of streptococcus phneumonae
  30. Hospital acquired infections are called?
    nosocomial infections
  31. taking of DNA from 1 cell, manipulating it invitro and then putting it in another cell is called?
    recombinant DNA technology
  32. Invitro means
    occurs outside a living cell
  33. The process of obtaining a larege number of copies of a gene
    Gene Cloning
  34. A DNA molecule that a host cell can replicate
    Cloning vector
  35. non coding sections of DNA that enzymes have cut out after the gene has been transcribed into mRNA
  36. an enzyme that used RNA as a template to make a complementary strand of DNA
    Reverse transcriptase
  37. What are the 3 charachteristics of good cloning?
    • 1-DNA molecules that can replicate b/c they have a region called origin of replication.
    • 2-Small so that thier replication does not tax the host cell's metabollic capacity
    • 3-it has cells that identify host cells with the vector
  38. What is used to cut out genes (cut the cloning vector)
    restriction endonucleases
  39. a process that seals the fragment of DNA with the gene to be cloned into the cut
  40. What are the 4 ways to put Recombinant DNA into a Host Cell?
    • transformation
    • transfection
    • microinjection
    • electroporation
  41. When Dna leaves 1 cell and exists extracellular then is taken up by another cell where it may become part of the genome
  42. DNA from a virus
  43. inserts DNA into an animal cell directly by using a pipette
  44. introduces DNA into an bacterial cell by suspending cells into a solution of DNA and applying high voltage electrical impulses
  45. One way to find the right gene to insert is by prior purifaction where a short DNA strand that is complimentary to mRNA is tagged with
    a probe (usually radioactive isotope)
  46. List 4 hosts that are used for Recombinant DNA
    • E. Coli (first used)
    • insects
    • plants
    • animals
  47. the sum of all chemical activities that take place within an organism
  48. aerobic metabolism takes place in the presence of
  49. During _________ a DNA base sequence of ATCC will order a base sequence of ATCC
  50. During _____a DNA sequence of GCTCA will order an RNA base sequence of GCUCA
  51. What happens during transcription?
    uracil replaces thymine
  52. proteins are synthesized during
  53. The role of tRNA is to carry _______to ribosomes
    amino acids
  54. changes in a cell's DNA
  55. plasmids are transferred to cells by
  56. genetic recombination involves artificial and
    natural means
  57. what are 3 forms of genetic exchange among bacteria?
    transformation, conjugation, and transduction
  58. what tpe of genetic exchange occurs when DNA leaves one cell and exists for a time in the extracellular environment, then is taken up by another cell where it may become incorporated into the genome?
  59. who first experimented with transformation?
    frederick griffith
  60. Recomginant DNA technology occurs in vitro. This means it occurs
    outside living cells
  61. transformation transfection microinjection and electroporation are all means to put _______ molecules into host cells
    recombinant DNA
  62. Transfection is DNA from a
  63. Inserting DNA into animal cells directly using a pipette is called
  64. DNA that is introduced into bacterial, animal, or plant cells by applying high voltage electrical impulses is called
  65. Microorganisms grow by
    binary fission
  66. in binary fission cleavage near the midpoint forms into ______daughter cells of approximate equal size
  67. doubling time is hte time it takes for a population to divide and produce
    2 new cells
  68. the doubling time for E.Coli is about ________
    17-18 mins
  69. What are the 4 phases of bacteria growth that occur in a batch culture?
    • lag phase
    • exponential phase
    • stationary phase
    • death phase
  70. no growth, the bacterial cells are getting used to thier new environment
    lag phase
  71. 1 cell increases to 2 cells, then 4, then 8, then 16
    exponential phase
  72. no growth, equal births and deaths as nutrients decline
    stationary phase
  73. decline in population
    death phase
  74. a batch culture means that population grows in a
    test tube/flask/lab setting
  75. a mass of cells growing in agar
  76. cells in the center of colonies are usually in the stationary or death phase because they have
    ran out of nutrients
  77. cells on the edge of a colony are in the exponential phase because they have plenty of
  78. when making a slide from a colony, where should you take the cells from? the edge of the colony or the center?
    the edge
  79. nutritional needs are related to the types of elements of which a bacterial cell is built of. (what it is made up of)
    List 4 major elements
    carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus (as well as sulfur)
  80. Thermophiles grow at
    high temps above 50*C
  81. mesophiles grow best at
    moderate temps 37*C
  82. Psychrophiles grow at cold temps
    below 5*C
  83. The spoiling of food in a refrigerator is ussually due to the action of
  84. most prokaryotes grow best at
    slightly alkaline pH
  85. acidophiles are
    acid lovers
  86. alkaliphiles are
    base lovers
  87. halophiles are
    salt lovers
  88. all microorganisms need liquid_______ to grow
  89. Fluid within the cytoplasm moves out causing cell membrane to pull away from the cell wall (can collapse)
  90. higher solute concentration outside the cell compared to inside of cell
  91. a spectrophotometer measures the _______of a culture
  92. the Petroff-Hauser chamber is used to
    count cells
  93. Sterilization refers to the ________of all microbial life
  94. disinfectant is the treatment that reduces the number of _______to a level at which they pose no danger of disease.
  95. Decontamination renders a surface that has been heavily exposed to microorganisms safe to
  96. antisepsis kills microorganisms on
    living tissue
  97. In sterilization what are the 3 things we must know?
    • 1-the D-value of treatment (unit of time to kill micro)
    • 2-number of cells present
    • 3-desired degree of certainty that no cells will be alive at end of treatment
  98. the canning industry must know how long food must be heated for it to be free of bacteria, especiall for
  99. the endospores of the bacterium_________can cause botulism
    clostridium botulinum
  100. Moist heat sterilizes by _________proteins
  101. Boiling water does not work on
    vegetative cells of thermophilic bacteria or endospores
  102. An autoclave usually maintains a pressure of ______psi at a temp of ______C.
    15, 121
  103. Pasteurization kills certain microorganisms by denaturing proteins and eliminates pathogens that slow the spoilage of
    wine, beer, dairy, milk
  104. refridgeration preserves food by
    slowing microbial growth or slowing chemical reactions
  105. UV light sterilized by damaging
  106. Filtration removes the cellular microorganisms but not
  107. High concentrations of salt or sugar are used to preserve certain foods by
    drawing out water
  108. Chemicals that kill microorganisms are called
  109. Joseph Lister used phenols to kill most microorganisms. He called it
    carbolic acid, cloraseptic
  110. Germistats are chemicals that inhibit
    microbial growth
  111. a tincture of iodine contains
  112. surfactants are
    soaps/detergents that physically remove microbes
  113. what is the standard treatment for pasteurizing milk?
    heating to 63*C for 30 mins or 72*c for 15 mins
  114. How does vinegar prevent the growth of most mircroorganisms
    provides a low pH
  115. How does salting preserve food?
    drawing out water
  116. What is calcium propionate?
    antifungal agent added to bread to prevent mold/mildew growth
  117. what are the 4 phases of bacterial growth
    lag phase, exponential phase, stationary phase, death
  118. a population that grows in a closed container is called a
    batch culture
  119. Halophiles can withstand extremely high _____concentrations
  120. psychropiles grow best at a temp of _____C
  121. a spectrometer measures the _______ of a culture
  122. the petroff hauser chamber is used to
    count cells
  123. what term describes a treatment that destroys all microbial life?
  124. what term describes a treatment that is specifically meant to kill microorganisms on living tissue?
  125. boiling water doesnt work on destroying vegetatvie cells of thermophilic bacteria or
  126. does pasteurization kill all microorganisms
  127. cold slows or stops microbial growth by
    slowing chemical reactions
  128. list 2 examples of surfactatants
  129. One example of bacteria that produce endospores aht can cause botuslism is
    bacterium clostridium botulinum
  130. what is the name of the antifungal agent added to bread to prevent mildew/mold growth?
    calcium propionate