1.2.1

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Author:
efrain12
ID:
258028
Filename:
1.2.1
Updated:
2014-01-23 10:40:12
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Metabolism
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Description:
The digestive system: Mechanism for nourishing the body
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  1. (structure of the digestive tract and digestive processes) 5 main structures
    -oral cavity

    -esophagus

    -stomach

    -small intestines

    -large intestines
  2. (structure of the digestive tract and digestive processes) what are 3 accessory organs?
    -pancreas

    -liver

    -gallbladder
  3. Oral cavity) Where does digestion begin?
    in the mouth
  4. Oral cavity) What provides mechanical digestion in the mouth?
    teeth
  5. Oral cavity)  what are the 2 salivary enzymes?
    -salivary amylase

    -lingual lipase
  6. Oral cavity) what does salivary amylase digest?
    starct
  7. Oral cavity) What does lingual lipase digest?
    fats
  8. Oral cavity) What type of digestion does salivary enzymes perform?
    chemical
  9. Oral cavity) what are the 3 salivary glands?
    -parotid

    -submandibular

    -sublingual
  10. esophagus and swallowing) What is food called when it is mixed and chewed with saliva?
    bolus
  11. esophagus and swallowing) what are the 3 phases of swallowing?
    -voluntary phase

    -pharyngeal phase

    -esophageal phase
  12. esophagus and swallowing) Voluntary phase:
    food is voluntarily swallowed and pushed backwards into the pharynx
  13. esophagus and swallowing) Pharyngeal phase:
    involuntary contractions move bolus into esophagus
  14. esophagus and swallowing) Esophageal phase
    involuntary contractions move bolus through esophagus, through the lower esophageal sphincter into the stomach
  15. stomach) 4 main regions
    -cardiac region

    -fundus

    -body

    -antrum or distal pyloric region
  16. stomach) functions: (2)
    -grinds and mixes foods in gastric region to form chyme

    -provides strong peristalsis for gastric emptying
  17. stomach) Where are cardiac glands?
    upper
  18. stomach) where are oxyntic glands?
    middle
  19. stomach)where are pyloric glands?
    lower
  20. stomach) what are the 4 types of cells in the glands?
    -neck cells

    -parietal cells

    -chief cells

    -enteroendocrine cells
  21. (gastric juice) what 2 things does HCl do?
    -denatures protein

    -cleaves pepsinogen into pepsin
  22. (gastric juice) what does pepsin do?
    breaks down proteins into peptides
  23. (gastric juice) what do enzymes form?
    chief cells
  24. (gastric juice) what does gastric lipase do?
    cleaves fatty acids from triacyleglycerols
  25. (gastric juice) what does pepsinogen do?
    zymogen precursor to pepsin
  26. (gastric juice) what do mucus-glycolipids/glycoproteins do? (2)
    -coat bolus

    -protect lining of stomach from HCl
  27. how much absorption is there at stomach?
    • minimal
    • *water, meds, alcohol, some minerals
  28. stomach) what 2 things in stomach perform protein hydrolysis?
    -HCl

    -pepsin
  29. stomach)what 2 things perform Triacylglycerol breakdown: (2)
    -gastric lipase

    -salvary lipase
  30. stomach)why is starch breakdown halted here?
    low pH inactivates salivary amylase
  31. stomach) what happens if the mucus that lines the stomach breaks down>
    peptic ulcer can ensue
  32. stomach) what 3 things can breakdown the mucus lining of stomach?
    -NSAIDS

    -H.PYlori infection

    -alcohol abuse
  33. GERD) why does heartburn occur?
    when HCl refluxes back into the esophagus bc of misalignments of stomach or excessive HCl
  34. GERD) what does treatment focuses on.
    blocks HCl production
  35. small intestines) 3 things tht compose it
    -duodenum

    -jejunum

    -illium
  36. small intestines) where does most digestion and absorption occur?
    small intestines
  37. small intestines) what does the pancreas secrete? (3)
    -secretes bicarb, electrolytes, & 13 different digestive enzymes
  38. small intestines) what does the liver produce and secrete/
    bile for the emulsification of fats
  39. small intestines) What does gallbladder store and secretes?
    • bile
    • *stores bile for high fat meals
  40. small intestines) where do pancreas,liver, gallbaldder secrete their products?
    proximal duodenum
  41. structural aspects of small intestines) Lumen
    the opening of the intestines which chyme passes through
  42. structural aspects of small intestines) folds of kerckring
    circular folds of mucosa that protude into the lumen
  43. structural aspects of small intestines) Villi
    fingerlike projections
  44. structural aspects of small intestines) microvilli
    hair-like extensions of the enterocytes plasma membrane
  45. Colon-large intestines) what does its proximal colonic epithelia absorb?
    -Na, Cl, and H2O
  46. Colon-large intestines) what happens to materials in here?
    they get dehydrated
  47. constipation) what is infrequent defecation?
    less than 3 times/ week
  48. Gastric regulation and fight or flight response) what 2 thigns happen during sympathetic nervous system?
    -stress hormones inhibit gastrin

    -tends to inhibit gastric secretions, peristalsis, digestion
  49. Gastric regulation and fight or flight response) what two things happen during parasympathetic nervous system?
    -increase gastric secretions

    -promote good digestion
  50. intestinal bacteria(microflora), pre and probiotics, and disease) fermentation:
    breakdown of CHO and protein anaerobically
  51. intestinal bacteria(microflora), pre and probiotics, and disease) Probiotics
    foods containing live bacterial cultures
  52. intestinal bacteria(microflora), pre and probiotics, and disease) Prebiotics:
    food ingredients that promote bacterial growth
  53. intestinal bacteria(microflora), pre and probiotics, and disease) what are probiotics thought to do? (5)
    -enhance immunity

    -prevent colonization by pathogens

    -lower pH of the colon

    -transform/promote excretion of toxic substances

    -enhance fecal bulk
  54. IBS) what is the most common functional bowel disorder?
    IBS
  55. IBS) why is IBS called a functional GI disorder?
    it is a problem caused by changes in how the GI tract works
  56. IBS) does the GI tract become damaged?
    no
  57. IBD) what is IBD?
    conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the GI tract
  58. IBD) what is the cause for IBD?
    unknown
  59. IBD) Crohn's disease:
    causes inflammation, swelling, and irritation of any part of the GI tract
  60. IBD) Ulcerative colitis:
    causes inflammation and ulcers in the inner lining of the large intestine
  61. Do probiotics survive the digestive tract?
    yes, specific strains of bacteria can survive digestion to affect the bacterial diversity in the colon
  62. does fermented dairy help with constipation/
    yes, yogurt has beneficial effect on constipation
  63. Does fermented dairy help with micro/macro nutrient aborption?
    no, it does not seem to increase absorption except in lactose intolerance
  64. can fermented dairy help with IBS and IBD?
    yes, probiotic and synbiotic supplementation has beneficial effect on IBS and IBD

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