Alterations of Consciousness

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avarricc
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258038
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Alterations of Consciousness
Updated:
2014-01-24 13:56:12
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Chapter Two
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Wakefulness, Introspection, Day dreaming, Sensory Restriction
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  1. Who was the founder of psychology as a laboratory science in the 19th century ?
    Wundt
  2. What did Wundt confine to research concerning sensation and perception, in which laboratory instruments were used to vary the stimuli ?
    Experimental Introspection
  3. Who developed the terms inner perception and inner observation ?
    Brentano
  4. What is the term for the discrete noticing of what was happening to mental events as they occurred without interfering with them ?
    Inner Perception
  5. What is the term for the direct focusing on one's inner mental life ?
    Inner Observation
  6. What is Introspection ?
    looking into our own minds and reporting what we there discover
  7. What is Retrospection ?
    a person examines her memory of that which has previously transpired
  8. Who coined the terms Introspection & Retrospection ?
    James
  9. What did the Computational Approach emphasize ?
    • Memory
    • Language
    • Problem-Solving
    • Other cognitive processes
  10. What did the Computational Approach leave out ?
    • Emotions
    • Consciousness
  11. What approach entails that introspecting is an imaginative reconstruction of what we think our mental life should be like based on perceptions of our own and others' behaviors ?
    Computational Approach
  12. What is the term for our ability to know something of our own cognitive processes ?
    Metacognition
  13. What kind of method is where participants wear an electronic pager that oes off at random intervals where participants give a high-resolution description of their mental states right as these are happening ?
    Experience Sampling Method
  14. What are the 4 metaphors that have been used to characterize the manner in which people's perceptions of themselves function ?
    • Scientist
    • Consistency Seeker
    • Politician
    • Egoist
  15. What metaphor refers to a person's dispassionate search for accurate self-knowledge ?
    Scientist
  16. What metaphor refers to reduce inconsistency by selective remembering of life events, reconstruction of the past, seeking out and creating contexts in which one's ideas about oneself are confirmed, and distorting or discounting the inconsistent information, even when one's self-views are negative ?
    Consistency Seeker
  17. What metaphor defines, constructs, and negotiates her self-concept through interaction with others in such a way as to create favorable impressions on others and to gain their approval ?
    Politician
  18. What metaphor is that people are motivated toward self-enhancement, that people want to like themselves and will adopt cognitive and interpersonal strategies to create and maintain a positive self image
    Egoist
  19. What are the 5 characteristics of thinking developed by James ?
    • Every thought tends to be part of a personal consciousness
    • Within each personal consciousness thought is always changing
    • Within each personal consciousness thought is sensibly continuous like a 'stream'
    • Thought always appears to deal with objects independent of itself
    • Thought is interested in some parts of these objects to the exclusion of others, and chooses from among them
  20. In contemporary cognitive science, the self is ?
    • Biological organism
    • Person's information processing system
  21. What are the two parts of the stream of consciousness ?
    • Substantive
    • Transitive
  22. What are the 3 dimensions of thinking developed by Klinger ?
    • Thought are Spontaneous OR Deliberate
    • Thoughts are Internal ORĀ  External
    • Thoughts are Strange
  23. What type of thinking is consisted of specific content that is intentionally directed toward the attainment of certain goals ?
    Deliberate thinking
  24. What type of thinking consists of thought that just pop into our minds ?
    Spontaneous thinking
  25. 2/3 of participates rated a majority of their thoughts as ?
    Deliberate
  26. 1/3 of participates rated a majority of their thoughts as ?
    Spontaneous
  27. What are two ways that we can focus our thinking ?
    • Externally
    • Internally
  28. What focus of thinking is paying attention to what is going on in the environment around us ?
    Externally Focused
  29. What focus of thinking is of our thoughts away from what is happening in our environment ?
    Internally Focused
  30. Within the Strange dimension, what are 3 categories our thoughts are in ?
    • Fanciful Or Realistic
    • Disconnected
    • Degenerated
  31. What are thoughts where important social role expectations or current versions of natural laws are violated ?
    Fanciful
  32. What is the term for when thought inexplicably jump from one to another ?
    Disconnected
  33. What are dreams or thoughts where nothing makes any sense ?
    Degenerated
  34. what type of dreams are thoughts that are spontaneous rather than deliberate ?
    Daydreaming
  35. What author states that daydreams were internally focused rather than externally focused thoughts ?
    Singer
  36. Is it possible that you can purposely daydream to remember something that rationally logic thinking you can't?
    Yes, through guided imagery
  37. What author stated that daydreaming is a channel of information about ourselves to ourselves ?
    Klinger
  38. What are different daydreaming styles ?
    • Positive-Constructive
    • Guilty-Dysphoric
    • Poor Attentional Control
  39. What daydreaming style is it when we become absorbed in frequent, vivid, playful, and wish-fulfilling fantasies that are accepted, enjoyed, and used for problem solving ?
    Positive-Constructive
  40. What daydreaming style is it when we tend to repeat a small number of themes of a somewhat bizarre nature often emerging with a near hallucinatory vividness ?
    Guilty-Dysphoric Daydreaming
  41. What daydreaming style is it when we have difficulty concentrating and are anxious, distracted, easily bored, and unable to sustain an elaborate fantasy
    Poor Attentional Control
  42. What personality of the five-factor model of personality is correlated with Positive-Constructive Daydreaming ?
    Openness
  43. What personality of the five-factor model of personality is correlated with Guilty-Dysphoric Daydreaming ?
    Neuroticism
  44. What personality's of the five-factor model of personality is correlated with Poor Attentional Control ?
    Neuroticism & Conscientiousness
  45. What is the term that implies the presence of a creative aspect of mind that can give rise to mental imagery ?
    Imagination
  46. What is the term that a process of actively directing images in a symbolically meaningful sequence ?
    Guided imagery
  47. Who states that one way of accessing the superconscious was thought to be through the use of guided imagery ?
    Assagioli
  48. What is the term that defines that sometimes our thoughts can have effects on our immune systems as found in a field of investigation ?
    Psychoneruoimmunology
  49. Explain the test on Cyclophosphamide ?
    • While rats were drinking water they were injected with Cyclophosphamide that would make them sick
    • Over time they as they were drinking water they were injected with salt water and still got sick
    • Evidence that thinking that we are getting sick does get us sick
  50. Who was the author of the study that examined the effects of guided imagery on the immune system with interest in white blood cells (neutrophils) and their properities of adherence that was capable of being increased ?
    Schneider
  51. Who was the researcher that injected mice with breast cancer for a remote healing experiment ?
    Bankston
  52. What was Bankston's method of remote healing ?
    Place hands on cage for 1 hour and mental processing of imagine a list of things that you want and go through it so quickly that you can do it 100 -200 times in seconds
  53. What was Bankston's cure rate ?
    87.9%
  54. Who was the experimenter that conducted early research on sensory restriction using a water floatation device ?
    Lilly
  55. Was stimulus reduction, whether alone or combined with other techniques, a highly effective treatment in habit modification ?
    Yes
  56. What are the two versions of REST ?
    • Restricted environmental stimulation technique
    • Restricted environmental stimulation therapy

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