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is the scientific discipline that seeks to explain life at the molecular and cellular level
is the specialized branch that examines the digestion, absorption, and elimination of nutrients as well as their physiological functions
What are the 4 cellular building blocks?
Polar molecules are ____
- *dissolve in water
Nonpolar are _____
- *nonsoluble in water
Molecules with similar functional groups have___
What do functional groups determine?
how a molecule will react with other molecules
charged and symmetry) The more asymmetrical the charge distribution, the more
the molecule can interact with water
charged and symmetry) The more symmetrical the charge distribution, the less
- the molecule can interact with water
what is Amphipathic molecule?
both polar and non-polar molecule
WHat is an example of amphiatic molecules?
What is plasma membrane made up off?
why are cells round?
- hydrophobic/hydrophyllic interactions naturally create the round structure that contains the cell
- *phosphate end interacts with water outside
- *lipid end moves away from the water to the center of the bilayer
3 purposes of phospholipid bilayer membrane
-contain the contents of the cell
-protect the cell from its environment
-regulate movement of substances into & out of the cell
what does the plasma membrane's selective permeability of membranes do?
-hydrophobic center inhibits polar substances from entering
- -allows to utilize protein channels that are selective
- *determines which water soluble substances may enter
4 ways to move things across the membrane?
4 types of transportation across membrane) Does diffusion require energy?
4 types of transportation across membrane) how is diffusion powered by?
- simple concentration gradient
- *flows from greater concentration to lower
4 types of transportation across membrane) what 2 things can flow freely through the membrane/
O2 and CO2
4 types of transportation across membrane) Does facilitated diffusion require energy?
4 types of transportation across membrane) what is facilitated diffusion for?
large substances that require channels
4 types of transportation across membrane) Facilitated diffusion- Cotransport:
a way to move an item against its concentration gradient without expending energy
4 types of transportation across membrane) Facilitated diffusion- How does Cotransport work?
attach the item to another item that is already moving down a concentration gradient
4 types of transportation across membrane) what does active transport create?
- concentration gradients
- *created potential energy
4 types of transportation across membrane) what is active transport used for?
to move items against their concentration gradient
4 types of transportation across membrane) what is pinocytosis?
substance enters encapsulated by a mini plasma membrane
4 types of transportation across membrane) does pinocytosis require ATP?
Can membrane proteins move around?
yes, they can move laterally within membrane or enter/exit the membrane
Where do the membrane proteins come from?
they are produced and managed by the nucleus
what two things does the endoplasmic reticulum create?
- -protein and lipids
- *rough and smooth er
what organelle assembles proteins?
what does golgi apparatus do?
processes and packages proteins after they leave rough e.r
What do lysosomes do? (2)
contains enzymes that break up proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
-remove and recycle waste products
what 2 things is the happen at the mitochondrial matrix?
-fatty acid oxidation
what 4 things is energy needed for?
-transfer of genetic information
what is free energy?
potential energy in bonds of nutrients tht is released
What type of bonds hold the phosphates together in ATP?
- anhydride bonds
- *release a lot of energy when hydrolyzed
what are 2 examples of potential energy?
macros and ATP
What is potential energy?
What is activation energy?
energy necessary to ignite the release of potential energy
what do enzymes do? (2)
-binds 2 substrates
-speeds up their reaction by lowering the activation
examples of enzyme) oxidoreductases
reactions in which one compound is oxidized and another is reduced
examples of enzyme) transferases
functional group transferred from one substrate to another
examples of enzyme) hydrolases
hydrolysis of carbon bonds
examples of enzyme) Lyases
cleavage of C-C, C-S, & C-N bonds
examples of enzyme) Isomerases
interconversion of optical or geometric isomers
examples of enzyme) LIgases
catalyze formation of C and other bonds
What does coupling do?
makes impossible reactions occur