Anatomy

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jnov576
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258076
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Anatomy
Updated:
2014-01-26 22:59:37
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Anatomy
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midterm review
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  1. Anterior
    Near to or at the front of the body
  2. Posterior
    Nearer to or at the back of the body
  3. Superior
    Upper part of the body
  4. Inferior
    Lower part of the body
  5. What is the level of organization from most complex to least complex?
    Organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cellular, chemical.
  6. Osteogenic cells
    • Comes from the mesenchyme cells
    • undergoes cell division
    • differntiates into osteoblasts
  7. Osteoblasts
    • Produces bone matrix
    • formed by an osteogenic cell
    • differentiates into osteocytes
  8. Osteocytes
    • mature bone cell
    • maintains the daily activities of bone tissues
    • differentiates into osteoclasts
  9. Osteoclasts
    • destroys bone matrix
    • comes from monocytes(white blood cells)
  10. Fibrous Joint
    immovable joint held together by connective tissue
  11. Examples of fibrous joints
    • sutures( in the skull)
    • syndesmosis(slightly moveable)
    • gomphosis(joint between root of tooth)
  12. Cartilaginious Joint
    Connected entirely by cartilage
  13. Examples of Cartilaginious joints
    • synchondrosis(connected with hyaline cartilage)
    • symphysis(slightly moveable)
  14. Synovial Joint
    planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball and socket.
  15. synarthroses
    an immovable joint
  16. Amphiarthroses
    Slightly moveable joint
  17. Diarthroses
    Freely moveable joint
  18. Epiphyseal line
    (done growing) the remnant of the epiphyseal plate in the metaphysis of a long bone
  19. Epiphyseal plate
    (also known as the growth plate) the hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis of a long bone; site of lengthwise growth of long bones.
  20. Articular cartilage
    Hyaline cartilage attached to articular bone surfaces
  21. Diaphysis
    The shaft of a long bone
  22. Epiphyses
    The end of a long bone, usually larger in diameter than the shaft
  23. Metaphysis
    Region of a long bone between the diaphysis and epiphyses that contains the epiphyseal plate in a growing bone
  24. Periosteum
    Covering of a bone that consists of connective tissue, osteogenic cells, and osteoblasts. Its essential for bone growth repair and nutrition.
  25. Marrow Cavity
    Space within the diaphysis of a bone that contains yellow bone marrow.
  26. Endosteum
    membrane that lines the marrow cavity of bones consisting of osteogenic cells and scattered osteoclasts.
  27. What are the zones of bone growth in the Epiphyseal plate?
    • 1. zone of resting cartilage
    • 2. zone of proliferating cartilage
    • 3. zone of hypertrophic cartilage
    • 4. zone of calcified cartilage
  28. appositional growth
    growth at the outer surface
  29. Interstitial growth
    growth by cell division.
  30. What are the factors of bone growth?
    • developement of cartilage model
    • growth of cartilage model
    • developement of primary ossification center
    • developement of marrow cavity
    • developement of secondary ossification center
    • formation of articular cartilage and the epiphyseal plate.
  31. Synovitis
    inflammation of the synovial membrane (hip joint in young children)
  32. Bursectomy
    Orthopedic surgical procedure to remove inflammed bursa
  33. Lyme Disease
    Bacterial infection that is spread through the bite of tics
  34. Rotator cuff injury
    in the shoulder area
  35. Joint dislocation
    Occurs when there is an abnormal seperation in the joint
  36. Bursitis
    Swelling and irritation of a bursa.
  37. Sprain/Strain
    Injury to ligaments around a joint
  38. Spina Bifida
    (split spine) incomplete developement of the spinal cord
  39. Lordosis
    Increased curving of the spine
  40. Kyphosis
    Curving of spine that causes a bowing or rounding in the back
  41. Scoliosis
    Abnormal curving of the spine
  42. Herniated Disc
    Ruptured, slipped, or collapsed disc in the spine.
  43. a
    without
  44. vascular
    blood
  45. epi
    above
  46. foramen
    hole
  47. supra
    above
  48. osteo
    bone
  49. sarc
    flesh
  50. melan
    black
  51. noma
    tumor
  52. carca
    cancer
  53. mid
    middle
  54. para
    to the side
  55. inter
    between
  56. macro
    large
  57. hyper
    more/over
  58. hypo
    below/under
  59. intra
    inside
  60. extra
    outside
  61. ana
    up
  62. tomy
    process of cutting
  63. physio
    nature
  64. logy
    study of
  65. hist
    tissue
  66. morph
    form
  67. dis
    apart
  68. section
    act of cutting
  69. palp
    gentle touch
  70. auscult
    act of listening
  71. percus
    beat through
  72. autopsy
    seeing with ones own eyes
  73. homeo
    sameness
  74. stasis
    standing still
  75. peri
    around
  76. chondria
    cartilage
  77. patho
    disease
  78. hemo
    blood
  79. poiesis
    making
  80. cancell
    lattice work
  81. ous
    full of
  82. lacunae
    little lakes
  83. canaliculi
    small channels
  84. endo
    within/inside
  85. itis
    inflammation of
  86. osis
    condition
  87. Intramembranous ossification
    • forms flat bones. (skull and mandible) mostly spongy bone.¬†
    • 1.develope center of ossification
    • 2. calcification
    • 3. formation of trabeculae
    • 4. development of periosteum
  88. endochondral ossification
    • forms cartilage bone(long, short, and irregular)
    • 1. develop cartilage model
    • 2. growth of cartilage model
    • 3. development of primary ossification center
    • 4. development of secondary ossification center.¬†
    • 5. formation of articular cartilage and growth plate.
  89. Keratinocyte
    epidermal cell that produces keratin
  90. melanocyte
    mature melanin forming cell
  91. dendrocytes
    cell originates in bone marrow. helps in the immune system
  92. langerhan cells
    functions as an antigen cell. not resistant to UV light.
  93. Granstein cells
    acts as a "break" on skin activated immune. more resistant to UV light.
  94. Merkle cell
    least numerous of the epidermal cells located in the deepest layer of the epidermis.
  95. Endocrine glands
    (inside secreation) horomones enter interstitial fluid and then diffuse directly into the bloodstream.
  96. Exocrine glands
    (outside secretion) secrete their products into ducts that empty onto the surface of a covering and lining epithelium
  97. Apocrine Glands
    secrete straight to the surface.
  98. acne
    occurrence of inflammed sebaceous glands
  99. lupus
    inflammations of the skin
  100. psoriasis
    red,itchy,scaly patches
  101. pressure sore
    area of skin that breaks down when something keeps rubbing
  102. vitiligo
    a condition in which pigment is lost from areas of the skin causing whitish patches
  103. freckles
    small brownish spots that becomes more pronounced due to the sun
  104. moles
    small often slightly raised blemish on the skin caused my a high concentration of melanin
  105. cyanotic
    bluish discoloration a sign that oxygen in the blood is dangerously diminished
  106. Jaundice
    yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes arising from excess pigment bilirubin caused by obstruction of bile duct, liver disease, or excessive breakdown of red blood cells
  107. Erythema
    reddening of the skin, usually in patches
  108. 5 layers of the epidermis from deepest to outer most layer.
    • 1. stratum basale
    • 2. stratum spinosum
    • 3. stratum granulosum
    • 4. stratum lucidum
    • 5. stratum corneum
  109. What happens when your skin ages?
    • lose elasticity
    • wrinkles
  110. what is the chemical composition of sweat?
    mainly water, some salts and minerals. (sodium, potassium, and calcium)
  111. What is lymph
    a colorless fluid containing white blood cells
  112. first line of defense
    epidermis, hairs, mucous, cilia, saliva, urine, vomitting.
  113. second line of defense
    interferons, complement system, fever.
  114. chemical factors in line of defenses
    sebum, lysozymes, gastric juice, and vaginal secretions.
  115. What cells are involved with the lymphatic system?
    B cells, and T cells.
  116. dendritic cells and macrophages
    cells that destroy things
  117. autoimmune  disease
    immune system fails to display self tolerance. (attacks your own cells)
  118. ruptured spleen
    causes signifigant hemorrage and shock
  119. abscess
    an excessive accumulation of pus in a confined space
  120. ulcers
    open sore caused by inflammed tissue being sloughed off
  121. graft rejection
    when the immune system recognizes the skin graft as foreign
  122. HIV/AIDS
    progressive destruction of the immune system.
  123. lymphoma
    (clear water tumor) cancer of the lymphatic organs
  124. hodgkin disease
    painless non-tender enlargement of 1 or more lymph
  125. non-hodgkin disease
    same as hodgkin but includes spleen,anemia,and malaise
  126. oblique
    across/diagonal
  127. abdomin
    abs
  128. sub
    below
  129. pector
  130. chest
  131. rhomboid
    rhombus shape
  132. teres
    long and round
  133. delta
    triangle
  134. serratus
    saw toothed
  135. spina
    spine
  136. latissimus
    wide
  137. coraco
    coracoid process
  138. major
    large
  139. biceps
    2 heads of orgin
  140. brachi
    arm
  141. radi
    radius
  142. ancon
    elbow
  143. triceps
    3 heads of orgin
  144. pronator
    turns palms posterior
  145. quadratus
    square
  146. phragm
    wall
  147. piri
    pear shaped
  148. psoa
    loin
  149. glute
    butt
  150. clavius
    clavical
  151. dorsum
    back
  152. trapezoides
    trapezoid face
  153. scapularis
    scapula
  154. supination
    turn palm upward
  155. gemell
    twins
  156. magnus
    large
  157. pectin
    comb
  158. brevis
    short
  159. medius
    in the middle
  160. membran
    membrane
  161. semi
    half
  162. gastro
    belly
  163. sole
    flat fish
  164. poplit
    back of knee
  165. tempor
    temples
  166. orb
    circle
  167. oris
    mouth
  168. oculi
    eye
  169. tibialis
    tibia
  170. vastus
    huge
  171. abductor
    farther from midline
  172. adductor
    closer to midline
  173. what are the 7 ways muscles are named?
    action, shape, orgin and insertion, number of orgins, location, direction of fibers and size
  174. aging of muscles
    • between ages 30-50: 10% muscle tissue loss
    • between ages 50-80: 40% loss
  175. class 1 lever
    scissors
  176. class 2 lever
    wheel barrow
  177. class 3 lever
    see saw

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