Physiology Exam 1
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All organisms share certain characteristics.
- 1 are organized
- 2 require energy
- 3 maintain homeostasis
- 4 respond to stimuli
- 5 adapt
- 6 reproduce and develop
Living things are organized (7)
- A atom
- B molecule
- C cell
- D Tissue
- E Organs
- F System
- G Organism
- 1 epithelial
- 2 connective
Smallest structure and functional living unit of life.
Living things require energy
- Cells use nutrient molecules to get energy, carry out a sequence of chemical reactions.
- Metabolism are all chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
- Moisture lvl
- Acidity (hydrochloric acid production)
- other factors critical to maintain life.
Living things respond to stimuli
Find energy and or nutrients by interacting w/surroundings.
How many elements are naturally occurring?
6 elements make up 98% of body weight of organisms...
- H ydrogen
- C arbon
- O xygen
- P hosphorus
- S ulfur
- N itrogen
# of protons
Sum of protons and neutrons
Different number of neutrons.
Properties of H20 (6)
- 1 Solvency
- 2 Cohesion and Adhesion
- 3 Surface Tension
- 4 High Heating Capacity
- 5 High Heat Vaporization
- 6 Water is less dense frozen
- Clinging of water due to hydrogen bonds.
- Because of this water exists as liquid under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure.
Clinging of water to other polar surfaces due to polarity of water.
Water molecules at surface are more strongly attached to each other than air above.
High Heating Capacity of Water
100c=212f - boiling water
Organic Molecules contain...
carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Large biological molecules of cells are...(4)
- Nucleic Acid
glucose + glucose
glucose + glucose
glucose + fructose
Saccharides Divided into 4 Chemical Groups
- A mono saccharides
- B di saccharides
- C oligo saccharides
- D poly saccharides
three-ten bond sugar molecule
Chain of glucose
2 monomer => -1 molecule H20 = Dimer
Dimer => +1 molecule H20 = 2 monomers
Polysaccharide consists of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand linked glucose unit.
- Long-chain of N-acetylglucosamine
- A derivative of glucose
- Main component of cell walls of fungi and exoskeleton of insects
Lipids are insoluble in water due to...
non polar long hydrocarbon chain.
Main Biological Function of Lipids (4)
- Energy storage
- Protecting our internal organ from damage
- Structural components of cell membranes
Fat and Oil have two types of subunit molecules...
Both part hydrophilic and hydrophobic.
Contains 3 OH group, which makes the molecule soluble in water.
Insoluble in water due to non polar long hydrocarbon chain.
Fatty Acid is either...
Saturated or unsaturated.
- Fatty acids without double bonds
- Fatty acids that have carbon-carbon double bonds.
Phospholipids consist of...
- Hydrophobic tails
- Hydrophilic heads
Hydrophilic heads contain...
negatively charged phosphate group.
Hydrophobic tails consist of...
long fatty acid hydrocarbon chains.
The building blocks of proteins are...
How many amino acids are used to synthesize proteins?
Each amino acid consists of...(4 things)
- 1 Carbon atom, which is attached to a hydrogen atom.
- 2 Amino group
- 3 Carboxyl group
- 4 One of 20 different "R" groups/side chain, which determines which of the 20 amino acids it is and it's special properties.
Proteins are chains of amino acids held together by...
Peptide Bonds are...
- Covalent bonds between two amino acids.
- When the carboxyl group of one reacts with the amino group of the other causing the release of a molecule of water.
A chain under how many residues? Is often identified as a peptide bond.
Foreign substances in body.
Bind antigens and target them for annihilation.
- Majority make-up of proteins.
- Speed up Chemical reactions like, metabolism, DNA replication, DNA repair, transcription, and translation.
Transmembrane Proteins (3)
- Act as receptors
- Serve as ligand
- Transport proteins by forming an ion channel for charged molecules to enter and exit the cell.
Structural Proteins are majorly...
Structural proteins consist of...(3)
- Collagen and Elastin, critical components of connective tissue such as cartilage.
- Keratin, found in structures such as hair, nails, feathers, hooves.
- Actin and Tubulin are globular proteins, make up the cytoskeleton which allows the cell to maintain its shape and size.
What non-covalent interactions allow proteins to fold to perform their biological functions? (4)
- Hydrogen Bonding
- Ionic Interactions
- Van der Waals forces(weak attractive force between atoms and nonpolar molecules)
- Hydrophobic Packing
4 levels of protein structure...
- 1 primary
- 2 secondary
- 3 tertiary
- 4 quadernary
Linear sequence of amino acids
Secondary consists of (2)...
- beta-strand (beta sheets)
- Right-handed spiral
- Backbone N-H group, donates a hydrogen bond to backbone C=O group of the amino acid, 4 residues earlier.
- stretched polypeptide
- usually 3 to 10 amino acids long
- forms H bonds w/other beta strands in the same beta sheet.
- Single protein molecule
- a-helices and beta-sheets are folded into a compact globule
- folded by non-specific hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds
- multi-subunit protein
- stabilized by non-covalent interactions and disulfide bonds as tertiary structures
Nucleic Acid composed of polymers...and monomer...
- DNA and RNA are the polymers
- nucleotide is the monomer
- Nitrogen containing base (purine A & G, pyrimidine T & C)
- Phosphate group
- A 5 Carbon Sugar
Each nucleotide of DNA contains 1 of 4 bases...
What's it called when DNA makes a copy of itself?
DNA transcribed into RNA
Code for amino acid
Every 3 base strands for 1 of 20 amino acids in cells.
sequence of bases = sequence of amino acid peptides
RNA performs multiple vital roles in transcribing and translating DNA into protein...
- sugar ribose vs. deoxyribose
- uses base uracil instead of T
- molecules are single stranded
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Living things are made of cells and cell products
Greek, nucleus of a cell
before, without membrane
- -archaea (pro)
- -monera (pro)
- -Protista (single euk)
- -fungi (multi euk)
- -plantae (multi euk)
- -animalia (multi euk)
- have nuclear membrane
- linear DNA
- have nucleolus
- have NO nuclear membrane
- circular DNA
- have NO nucleolus
- boundry/wall of cell
- regulates passage of molecules and ions
- Short chains of carbohydrate attached to protein
- determine the identity of the cell
Different functions of proteins in the membrane...(6)
- 1 receptor- binds chemical messenger
- 2 enzyme- breaks down chemical messenger
- 3 ion channel- constantly open
- 4 gated ion channel- only open certain times
- 5 call recognition/cell-identity maker- glycoprotein
- 6 Junction- Cell Adhesion Molecule
- Contain chromatin
- In semifluid nucleoplasm
- Before cell division it forms into chromosomes
Nucleolus (pl. nucleoli) is...(3)
- contains genes encoding rRNA
- In nucleus of animal cells
- Site of protein synthesis
- Composed of 2 subunits, small and large
- Each subunit is made up of RNA + Proteins
Doesn't have ribosomes
Ex: added sugar
- Stack of 3 to 20 curved flattened saccules
- Receives transport vesicles sent to it by RER for further modification of protein.
nucleoplasm + cytoplasm
- membrane bound sacs
- store and transport materials within the cell
- Membranous sac
- stores substances such as nutrients or pigments ect.
- vesicles containing enzymes, which digest macromolecules like lipids
- Vesicles containing peroxidase enzyme, which converts hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.
- Hydrogen peroxide damages the cell and must be removed.
- Cell division
- Organization of Spindle
- Found in Eukaryotic cells
- Absent in higher plants and most fungi
Protein filaments and tubules
Ex: found on the apical surface of epithelial cells in small intestinal
cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells
Methods of moving substances through the membrane... (2) (4 kinds)
- Passive transport
- No ATP required
- -Facilitated Diffusion
Physical pressure forces fluid through a selectively permeable membrane.
Higher to lower concentrations, solutes.
Lower to higher concentrations, water.
Factors affecting the rate of diffusion...(5)
- Molecular weight
- Steepness of concentration gradient
- Membrane surface area
- Membrane permeability
Measure of osmotic pressure gradient of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Pressure of a solution against a semipermeable membrane to prevent water from flowing inward across the membrane.
External solution surrounding the cell has a solute concentration greater than that found inside the cell.
External solution surrounding the cell has a solute concentration lower than that found inside the cell.
The external solution surrounding the cell has a solute concentration equal to that found inside the cell.
- Molecules unable to diffuse directly through the phospholipid membrane.
- Move across cell membranes through protein channels and carrier proteins.
- Passive transport, substances move down their concentration gradient and no energy is required.
Carrier mediated transport (4)
- Solutes binds to a membrane protein
- Then protein changes conformation and releases the solute to the other side.
- Carrier is specific for the ligand
- Exhibits saturation as the solute concentration rises.
Ligand-gated ion channels
Ex: Neurontransmitter, allows the flow or blocking of specific ions
Group of transmembrane ion channels that are opened or closed in response to the signaling chemical
Active transport (2)
Ex: The uptake of glucose in the intestines in humans and Na+/K+ pump.
- Need ATP
- Movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient(from low to high concentration)
Na+/K+ Pump (2)
- Trans membrane ATPase located in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
- Uses ATP to move these two ions in opposite directions across the plasma membrane.
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