Physiology Exam 1

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  1. All organisms share certain characteristics.
    Living things...(6)
    • 1 are organized
    • 2 require energy
    • 3 maintain homeostasis
    • 4 respond to stimuli
    • 5 adapt
    • 6 reproduce and develop
  2. Living things are organized (7)
    • A atom
    • B molecule
    • C cell
    • D Tissue
    • E Organs
    • F System
    • G Organism
  3. Tissue types...(2)
    • 1 epithelial
    • 2 connective
  4. Cell
    Smallest structure and functional living unit of life.
  5. Living things require energy
    • Cells use nutrient molecules to get energy, carry out a sequence of chemical reactions.
    • Metabolism are all chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
  6. Homeostasis (4)
    • Temp
    • Moisture lvl
    • Acidity (hydrochloric acid production)
    • other factors critical to maintain life.
  7. Living things respond to stimuli
    Find energy and or nutrients by interacting w/surroundings.
  8. How many elements are naturally occurring?
  9. 6 elements make up 98% of body weight of organisms...
    • H ydrogen
    • C arbon
    • O xygen
    • P hosphorus
    • S ulfur
    • N itrogen
  10. Atomic number
    # of protons
  11. Atomic Mass
    Sum of protons and neutrons
  12. Isotopes have...
    Different number of neutrons.
  13. Properties of H20 (6)
    • 1 Solvency
    • 2 Cohesion and Adhesion
    • 3 Surface Tension
    • 4 High Heating Capacity
    • 5 High Heat Vaporization
    • 6 Water is less dense frozen
  14. Cohesion
    • Clinging of water due to hydrogen bonds.
    • Because of this water exists as liquid under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure.
  15. Adhesion
    Clinging of water to other polar surfaces due to polarity of water.
  16. Surface Tension
    Water molecules at surface are more strongly attached to each other than air above.
  17. High Heating Capacity of Water
    100c=212f - boiling water
  18. Organic Molecules contain...
    carbon and hydrogen atoms.
  19. Large biological molecules of cells are...(4)
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acid
  20. Carbs Formula
  21. Maltose
    glucose + glucose
  22. Lactose
    glucose + glucose
  23. Sucrose
    glucose + fructose
  24. Saccharides Divided into 4 Chemical Groups
    • A mono saccharides
    • B di saccharides
    • C oligo saccharides
    • D poly saccharides
  25. Oligosaccharides
    three-ten bond sugar molecule
  26. Polysaccharide
    Chain of glucose
  27. Dehydration Synthesis
    2 monomer => -1 molecule H20 = Dimer
  28. Hydrolysis
    Dimer => +1 molecule H20 = 2 monomers
  29. Cellulose
    Polysaccharide consists of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand linked glucose unit.
  30. Chitin
    • Long-chain of N-acetylglucosamine
    • A derivative of glucose
    • Main component of cell walls of fungi and exoskeleton of insects
  31. Lipids are insoluble in water due to...
    non polar long hydrocarbon chain.
  32. Main Biological Function of Lipids (4)
    • Energy storage
    • Insulation
    • Protecting our internal organ from damage
    • Structural components of cell membranes
  33. Lipids (6)
    • Fats
    • Waxes
    • Oils
    • Steroids
    • Phospholipids
    • Others
  34. Fat and Oil have two types of subunit molecules...
    • Glycerol
    • Fatty Acids
  35. Amphiphilic Molecule...
    Both part hydrophilic and hydrophobic.
  36. Glycerol...
    Contains 3 OH group, which makes the molecule soluble in water.
  37. Fatty Acid...
    Insoluble in water due to non polar long hydrocarbon chain.
  38. Fatty Acid is either...
    Saturated or unsaturated.
  39. Saturated...
    • Fatty acids without double bonds
    • Solid
  40. Unsaturated...
    • Fatty acids that have carbon-carbon double bonds.
    • Liquid
  41. Phospholipids consist of...
    • Hydrophobic tails
    • Hydrophilic heads
  42. Hydrophilic heads contain...
    negatively charged phosphate group.
  43. Hydrophobic tails consist of...
    long fatty acid hydrocarbon chains.
  44. The building blocks of proteins are...
    Amino Acid
  45. How many amino acids are used to synthesize proteins?
  46. Each amino acid consists of...(4 things)
    • 1 Carbon atom, which is attached to a hydrogen atom.
    • 2 Amino group
    • 3 Carboxyl group
    • 4 One of 20 different "R" groups/side chain, which determines which of the 20 amino acids it is and it's special properties.
  47. Proteins are chains of amino acids held together by...
    Peptide Bonds
  48. Peptide Bonds are...
    • Covalent bonds between two amino acids.
    • When the carboxyl group of one reacts with the amino group of the other causing the release of a molecule of water.
  49. A chain under how many residues? Is often identified as a peptide bond.
  50. Antigens are...
    Foreign substances in body.
  51. Antibodies...
    Bind antigens and target them for annihilation.
  52. Enzymes are...and...
    • Majority make-up of proteins.
    • Speed up Chemical reactions like, metabolism, DNA replication, DNA repair, transcription, and translation.
  53. Transmembrane Proteins (3)
    • Act as receptors
    • Serve as ligand
    • Transport proteins by forming an ion channel for charged molecules to enter and exit the cell.
  54. Structural Proteins are majorly...
  55. Structural proteins consist of...(3)
    • Collagen and Elastin, critical components of connective tissue such as cartilage.
    • Keratin, found in structures such as hair, nails, feathers, hooves.
    • Actin and Tubulin are globular proteins, make up the cytoskeleton which allows the cell to maintain its shape and size.
  56. What non-covalent interactions allow proteins to fold to perform their biological functions? (4)
    • Hydrogen Bonding
    • Ionic Interactions
    • Van der Waals forces(weak attractive force between atoms and nonpolar molecules)
    • Hydrophobic Packing
  57. 4 levels of protein structure...
    • 1 primary
    • 2 secondary
    • 3 tertiary
    • 4 quadernary
  58. Primary
    Linear sequence of amino acids
  59. Secondary consists of (2)...
    • a-helix
    • beta-strand (beta sheets)
  60. a-helix
    • Right-handed spiral
    • Backbone N-H group, donates a hydrogen bond to backbone C=O group of the amino acid, 4 residues earlier.
  61. beta-strand
    • stretched polypeptide
    • usually 3 to 10 amino acids long
    • forms H bonds w/other beta strands in the same beta sheet.
  62. Tertiary
    • Single protein molecule
    • a-helices and beta-sheets are  folded into a compact globule
    • folded by non-specific hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds
  63. Quaternary
    ex: hemoglobin
    • multi-subunit protein
    • stabilized by non-covalent interactions and disulfide bonds as tertiary structures
  64. Nucleic Acid composed of polymers...and monomer...
    • DNA and RNA are the polymers
    • nucleotide is the monomer
  65. Nucleotide
    3 Parts...
    • Nitrogen containing base (purine A & G, pyrimidine T & C)
    • Phosphate group
    • A 5 Carbon Sugar
  66. Each nucleotide of DNA contains 1 of 4 bases...
    • -guanine
    • -adenine
    • -thymine
    • -cytosine
  67. What's it called when DNA makes a copy of itself?
  68. TAC
    DNA transcribed into RNA
  69. Codons
    Code for amino acid
  70. Every 3 base strands for 1 of 20 amino acids in cells.
    sequence of bases = sequence of amino acid peptides
  71. RNA performs multiple vital roles in transcribing and translating DNA into protein...
    • sugar ribose vs. deoxyribose
    • uses base uracil instead of T
    • molecules are single stranded
  72. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
    Living things are made of cells and cell products
  73. Karyot
    Greek, nucleus of a cell
  74. Pro
    before, without membrane
  75. Eu
    True, with membrane
  76. Kingdoms (6)
    • -archaea (pro)
    • -monera (pro)
    • -Protista (single euk)
    • -fungi (multi euk)
    • -plantae (multi euk)
    • -animalia (multi euk)
  77. Eukaryotic cells...(3)
    • have nuclear membrane
    • linear DNA
    • have nucleolus
  78. Prokaryotic cells...(3)
    • have NO nuclear membrane
    • circular DNA
    • have NO nucleolus
  79. Plasma/Cell Membrane
    • boundry/wall of cell
    • regulates passage of molecules and ions
  80. Glycoprotein
    • Short chains of carbohydrate attached to protein
    • determine the identity of the cell
  81. Different functions of proteins in the membrane...(6)
    • 1 receptor- binds chemical messenger
    • 2 enzyme- breaks down chemical messenger
    • 3 ion channel- constantly open
    • 4 gated ion channel- only open certain times
    • 5 call recognition/cell-identity maker- glycoprotein
    • 6 Junction- Cell Adhesion Molecule
  82. Nucleus is...(4)
    • Membranous
    • Contain chromatin
    • In semifluid nucleoplasm
    • Before cell division it forms into chromosomes
  83. Nucleolus (pl. nucleoli) is...(3)
    • Non-membranous
    • contains genes encoding rRNA
    • In nucleus of animal cells
  84. Ribosomes are...(3)
    • Site of protein synthesis
    • Composed of 2 subunits, small and large
    • Each subunit is made up of RNA + Proteins
  85. Smooth ER
    Doesn't have ribosomes
  86. Rough ER
    Has ribosomes
  87. Golgi Apparatus
    Ex: added sugar
    • Stack of 3 to 20 curved flattened saccules
    • Receives transport vesicles sent to it by RER for further modification of protein.
  88. Protoplasm
    nucleoplasm + cytoplasm
  89. Chloroplast
    6CO2+6H2O==>solar energy==>C6H12O6/Glucose
  90. Mitochondria
    • Powerhouse
    • Membranous
  91. Vesicles
    • membrane bound sacs
    • store and transport materials within the cell
  92. Vacuoles
    • Membranous sac
    • stores substances such as nutrients or pigments ect.
  93. Lysosomes
    • Membranous
    • vesicles containing enzymes, which digest macromolecules like lipids
  94. Peroxisomes
    • Membranous
    • Vesicles containing peroxidase enzyme, which converts hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.
    • Hydrogen peroxide damages the cell and must be removed.
  95. Ribosomes
    No membrane
  96. Centrioles
    • Cell division
    • Organization of Spindle
    • Found in Eukaryotic cells
    • Absent in higher plants and most fungi
  97. Cytoskeleton
    Protein filaments and tubules
  98. Microvilli
    Ex: found on the apical surface of epithelial cells in small intestinal
    cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area of cells
  99. Methods of moving substances through the membrane... (2) (4 kinds)
    • Passive transport
    • No ATP required
    • -Filtration
    • -Diffusion
    • -Osmosis
    • -Facilitated Diffusion
  100. Filtration
    Physical pressure forces fluid through a selectively permeable membrane.
  101. Diffusion
    Higher to lower concentrations, solutes.
  102. Osmosis
    Lower to higher concentrations, water.
  103. Factors affecting the rate of diffusion...(5)
    • Temperature
    • Molecular weight
    • Steepness of concentration gradient
    • Membrane surface area
    • Membrane permeability
  104. Tonicity
    Measure of osmotic pressure gradient of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
  105. Osmotic Pressure
    Pressure of a solution against a semipermeable membrane to prevent water from flowing inward across the membrane.
  106. Hypertonic
    External solution surrounding the cell has a solute concentration greater than that found inside the cell.
  107. Hypotonic
    External solution surrounding the cell has a solute concentration lower than that found inside the cell.
  108. Isotonic
    The external solution surrounding the cell has a solute concentration equal to that found inside the cell.
  109. Facilitated diffusion...(3)
    • Molecules unable to diffuse directly through the phospholipid membrane.
    • Move across cell membranes through protein channels and carrier proteins.
    • Passive transport, substances move down their concentration gradient and no energy is required.
  110. Carrier mediated transport (4)

    Image Upload 1
    • Solutes binds to a membrane protein
    • Then protein changes conformation and releases the solute to the other side.
    • Carrier is specific for the ligand
    • Exhibits saturation as the solute concentration rises.
  111. Ligand-gated ion channels
    Ex: Neurontransmitter, allows the flow or blocking of specific ions
    Group of transmembrane ion channels that are opened or closed in response to the signaling chemical
  112. Active transport (2)
    Ex: The uptake of glucose in the intestines in humans and Na+/K+ pump.
    • Need ATP
    • Movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient(from low to high concentration)
  113. Na+/K+ Pump (2)
    • Trans membrane ATPase located in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
    • Uses ATP to move these two ions in opposite directions across the plasma membrane.
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Physiology Exam 1
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