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  1. Sociology
    Systematic (Scientific)  study of human society
  2. Sociological Perspective
    Special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people
  3. Global Perspective
    World wide study and our society's place in it
  4. Positivism
    a way of understanding based on science
  5. Theory
    A statement of how and why specific facts are related
  6. Theoretical Approach
    A basic image of society that guides thinking and research
  7. Structural-Functional Approach
    A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
  8. Social Structure
    Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
  9. Social Functions
    The consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
  10. Manifest Functions
    The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
  11. Latent Functions
    The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
  12. Social Dysfunction
    Any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
  13. Social-Conflict Approach
    A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
  14. Gender-Conflict Approach
    A point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men
  15. Feminism
    Support of social equality for women and men
  16. Race-Conflict Approach
    A point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
  17. Macro-Level Orientation
    A broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
  18. Micro-Level Orientation
    A close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations
  19. Symbolic-Interaction Approach
    A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
  20. Stereotype
    A simplified description applied to every person in some category
  21. CHAPTER 2
  22. Science
    Logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
  23. Empirical Evidence
    Information we can verify with our senses
  24. Positivist Sociology
    The study of society based on systematic observations of social behavior
  25. Concept
    A mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form
  26. Variable
    A concept whose value changes from case to case
  27. Measurement
    A procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
  28. Operationalize a Variable
    Specifying exactly what is to be measurable before assigning a value to a variable
  29. Reliability
    Consistency in measurement
  30. Validity
    Actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
  31. Cause and Effect
    A relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another
  32. Independent Variable
    The variable that causes the change
  33. Dependent Variable
    The Variable that changes
  34. Correlation
    A relationship in which two (or more) variables change together
  35. Spurious Correlation
    An apparent but false relationship between two (or more) variables that is caused by some other variable
  36. Control
    Holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable
  37. Objectivity
    Personal neutrality in conducting research
  38. Replication
    Repetition of research by other investigators
  39. Interpretive Sociology
    The study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
  40. Critical Sociology
    The study of society that focuses on the need for social change
  41. Research Method
    A systematic plan for doing research
  42. Experiment
    A research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
  43. Hypothesis
    A statement of a possible relationship between two (or more) variables
  44. Hawthorne Effect
    A change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
  45. Survey
    A research method in which subjects respond to series of statements or questions on a questionnaire or in an interview
  46. Population
    The people who are the focus of research
  47. Sample
    a part of a population that represents the whole
  48. Questionnaire
    A series of questions a researcher presents to subjects
  49. Interview
    A series of questions a researcher asks respondents in person
  50. Participant Observation
    A research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
  51. Inductive logical Thought
    Reasoning that transforms specific observations into general theory
  52. Deductive Logical Thought
    Reasoning that transforms general theory into specific hypotheses suitable for testing
  53. Chapter 3
  54. Culture
    The ways of thinking, and the material objects that together form a people's way of life
  55. Nonmaterial Culture
    The ideas created by members of a society
  56. Material Culture
    The physical things created by members of a society
  57. Culture Shock
    Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
  58. Symbol
    Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
  59. Language
    A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
  60. Cultural Transmission
    The process by which one generation passes culture to the next
  61. Sapir-Whorf Thesis
    The idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language
  62. Values
    Culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
  63. Beliefs
    Specific ideas that people hold to be true
  64. Norms
    Rules and expectations by which a society guides behavior of its members
  65. Mores
    Norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
  66. Folkways
    Norms for routine or casual interations
  67. Social Control
    Attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
  68. Technology
    knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
  69. High Culture
    Cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite
  70. Popular Culture
    Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
  71. Subculture
    Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
  72. Counterculture
    Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
  73. Multiculturalism
    A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the U.S. and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
  74. Eurocentrism
    The dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns
  75. Afrocentrism
    Emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns
  76. Cultural Integration
    The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
  77. Cultural Lag
    The fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system
  78. Ethnocentrism
    The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
  79. Cultural Relativism
    The practice of judging a culture by its own standards
  80. Chapter 5
  81. Socialization
    The lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
  82. Personality
    A person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
  83. Id
    Freud's term for the human being's basic drive
  84. Ego
    Freud's term for a person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society
  85. Superego
    Freud's term for the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
  86. Sensorimotor Stage
    Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
  87. Preoperational Stage
    Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols
  88. Concrete Operational Stage
    Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals first see casual connections in their surroundings
  89. Formal Operational Stage
    Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically
  90. Self
    George Herbert Mead's term for the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
  91. Looking-Glass Self
    Cooley's term for a self-image based on how we think others see us
  92. Significant Others
    People, such as parents, who have special importance for socialization
  93. Generalized other
    George Herbert Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as references in evaluating ourselves.
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2014-01-26 08:28:29

All terms from the textbook
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