Biol 1

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Author:
napoleon
ID:
25813
Filename:
Biol 1
Updated:
2010-07-12 21:24:13
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Biol
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Biol Class 1
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  1. monosaccharide:
    5C - ribose/deoxyribose

    • 6C - glucose/ fructose/ galactose
    • (aldehyde) (ketone)
  2. disaccharide:
    sucrose = glucose + fructose

    lactose = galactose + glucose
  3. polysaccharides:
    • glycogen (store energy in liver) = animal starch stored in liver
    • α linkage

    • cellulose = structural (tree bark) fibrous sugar
    • β linkage
  4. Cholesterol:
    rigid ring struct

    1. signaling molecules --> STEROIDS (testosterone)

    2. structural --> broaden range of temp that memb can maintain fluidity
  5. GIBBS FREE ENERGY EQ
    ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

    • ΔG - total NRG
    • ΔH - potential NRG (bond NRG)
    • enthalpy NRG in bonds
    • TΔS - kinetic

    • (-) heat rel
    • (+) heat taken in
    • T = kelvin
    • ΔS = entropy disorder
    • ΔG = dictate, favorability of rxn
    • (-) favorable (NRG being rel)
    • (+) unfavorable
  6. ΔG = 0

    Can affect ΔG?
    EQUILIBRIUM = dynamic (stuff moving back & forth)

    • 1. intrinsic prop of prod & reactants
    • 2. relative [prod][react]
  7. Kinetics ≠ Thermo

    enzymes?
    (speed does not relate to favorability of rxn)

    kinetics → speed = v

    Ea = energy of activation; "speed bump" need to go so fast to get over

    catalyst = ↓Ea
  8. Km =
    [S] @ which V=1/2 Vmax

    - strength of affinity b/w enzy & subst (E/S)

    • ↑Km = ↓affinity
    • ↓Km = ↑affinity
  9. INHIBITORS:
    • competitive = bind to active site
    • ↑km overcome by ↑[S]
    • noncompetitive = binds allosterically
    • ↓Vmax NOT overcome by ↑[S]
  10. Cellular Respiration:
    oxidizing = glucose (can do others to)
  11. e- carriers =
    NAD+/NADH

    FAD/FADH2
  12. CELLULAR RESPIRATION CHART
  13. GLYCOLYSIS:
    hexo kinase = locks gluco into cell

    • phospho fructose kinase: COMMITTED STEP
    • allosterically

    • AMP/ATP = ↑PFK
    • AMP/ATP = ↓PFK
  14. Fermentation:
    • anaerobic regeneration
    • NAD+

    • animals yeast
    • ↓ ↓
    • lactic acid EtOH
  15. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex:
    1st decarboxylation

    • same regulations
    • PFK AMP/ATP
    • 2 NADH
  16. Citric Acid Cycle:
    • 2C 4C 6C
    • Acetyl-CoA + OAA -----> Citric Acid
    • citric synthase
    • oxaloacetic acid
    • x4 oxidative decarboxylations
    • 6 NADH
    • 2 FADH2
    • 2 GTP
  17. ETC
  18. Glycolysis # of NADH/ATP
    • 2 NADH --------> 3 ATP
    • 1.5 -2 ATP 5 ATP
    • +4 ATP
  19. PDC # of NADH/ATP
    2 NADH ------> 5 ATP
  20. TCA
    • 6 NADH ---2.5---> 15 ATP
    • 2 FADH ---1.5---> 3 ATP
    • 2 GTP -------------> 2 ATP
  21. Total ATP
    [glycolysis, PDC, TCA]
    • 30 ATP (euk)
    • 32 ATP (prok)
  22. PHOTOSYNTHESIS
    Photoautotrophs -
    plastids:
    • thylakoid memb = coin
    • grana = stack of coins
    • stroma = area outside grana

    • take NRG sun --> harness to make
    • a more reduced/complex molecule
    • 3 CO2 → 3C (sugar)
  23. Photosynthesis 2 parts:
    • 1. Light dependent rxn making
    • NADPH/ATP = power light independent
    • anabolism

    • 2. Light independent = dark cycle
    • NADPH + ATP + CO2 → G-3P + ADP + NADPH + H2O

    G-3P: glyceraldehyde-3-P

    RuBisCO
  24. Photosynthesis glucose
    • 6 CO2
    • 18 ATP
    • 12 NADPH
  25. CENTRAL DOGMA
  26. Mutation:
  27. Replication:
  28. DNA pol (prok)
    III
    II
    I
    • III = 5' → 3' polymerase
    • 3' → 5' exonuclease

    II = unknown

    • I = 5' → 3' poly
    • 5' → 3' exonuclease
  29. TRANSCRIPTION
    DNA → RNA
    • -----------------------> RNA (+)
    • <----------------------- (-) antisense
    • DNA
    • -----------------------> (+) sense
  30. transcription
    START
    codon
    AUG = MET
  31. STOP codon
    • UAA
    • AGA
    • UAG
  32. ribosomes
    #
    3 sites
    • prok 70s = 50s + 30s
    • euk 80s = 60s + 40s

    • A = aminoacyl (arrival)
    • P = peptidyl site
    • E = exit
  33. RNA pol (euk)
    I
    II
    III
    • I = rRNA
    • II = mRNA*
    • III = tRNA
  34. Virus --> Lytic
    (4)
    • (1) get into (invade) cell
    • (2) get genome free
    • (3) replication
    • (4) rupture & escape

    humans = excreted
  35. Virus --> Lysogeny
    (5)
    • (1) Get into cell
    • (2) Get genome free
    • (3)*Inserts genome into host genome
    • (4) Cell replicates/ divides
    • - free copies
    • - protects from immune attracts
    • (5) Activated → replicating
    • enter lytic phase
  36. autotroph =
    fixes CO2
  37. phototroph =
    uses light to do something
  38. chemotrophs =
    use nonorganic as e- source
  39. heterotrophs =
    use organic as carbon source
  40. obligate anaerobe =
    use only O2
  41. facultative anaerobe =
    use O2 but don't need to
  42. tolerate anaerobe =
    don't use O2 but tolerate
  43. obligate anaerobe =
    O = KILLS

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