is an economic environment in which transactions between private parties are free from government restrictions, tariffs, and subsidies, with only enough regulations to protect property rights.
was a British cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.
An Essay on the Principle of Population
A key portion of the book was dedicated to what is now known as Malthus' Iron Law of Population.
Principles of Political Economy
The last chapter of the book was devoted to rebutting Say's law, and argued that the economy could stagnate with a lack of "effectual demand"
The Zollverein, or German Customs Union, was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.
Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes utility, usually defined as maximizing happiness and reducing suffering.
Jeremy Bentham was a Britishphilosopher, jurist, and social reformer. He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, and Robert Owen, which inspired Karl Marx and other early socialists.
Saint-Simon has been "variously portrayed as a utopian socialist, the founder of sociology and a prescient madman"
Owenism is the utopian socialist philosophy of 19th century social reformer Robert Owen and his followers and successors, who are known as Owenites.
The NAP was based on the ideas ofCharles Fourier, and lasted from 1843 to 1855-1856
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies often defined as self-governed
What is Property?
What you own
Marxism is a method of socio-economic analysis and worldview based on a materialist interpretation of historical development, a dialectical view of social transformation, and an analysis of class-relations and conflict within society
a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist.
was a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx.
is a short 1848 publication written by the political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
was the first President of the French Republic and, as Napoleon III, the ruler of the Second French Empire.
He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I.
was the last uprising in the Austrian Revolution of 1848.
was the King of Piedmont-Sardinia from 1831 to 1849.
Frederick William IV
the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861.
is a market community in the Miltenberg district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) in Bavaria, Germany.
The German question was a debate in the 19th century, especially during theRevolutions of 1848, over the best way to achieve the Unification of Germany.
were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-century Italy.
an Italian politician, journalist and activist for the unification of Italy.
was an Italian general and politician. He is considered, with Camillo Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II and Giuseppe Mazzini, as one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland".
was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.
Victor Emmanuel II
was king of Sardinia from 1849 until, on 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878.
was the second military conflict as a result of the Schleswig-Holstein Question.
was a war fought in 1866 between the German Confederation under the leadership of theAustrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the other
was a significant conflict pitting the Second French Empire against the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies in the North German Confederation, as well as the South German states of Baden, Württemberg, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt.
was the political and social movement that agglomerated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
is politics or diplomacy based primarily on power and on practical and material factors and considerations, rather than explicit ideological notions or moral or ethical premises.
Organization of labor
During the Revolution of 1848, Blanc became director of a commission on labor, but his plans did not come to fruition.
philosophy of social reform developed by the French social theorist Charles Fourier that advocated the transformation of society into self-sufficient, independent “phalanges” (phalanxes).