Parents, community/social upbringing, life experiences, culture background, gender
What is personality?
The patterns of feelings, motives, and behavior that set people apart form one another.
What is a trait?
An aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable.
What is Hippocrates?
Suggested that traits are a result of different combinations of body fluids.
What does the yellow bile of Hippocrates do?
Linked with a quick-tempered disposition (choleric)
What does blood represent in Hippocrates?
Linked with warm or cheerful disposition (sanguine)
What does phlegm represent in Hippocrates?
Linked to sluggish and cool disposition (phlegmatic)
What does black bile represent in Hippocrates?
Linked with melancholic, thoughtful disposition (melancholic)
What type of phycologist was Alfred Adler?
What did Alfred Adler believe in?
Inferiority complex, sibling rivalry, and creative self.
What is inferiority complex?
Overcompensating for some inferior feelings we have as children. Can be physical or emotional.
What is sibling rivalry?
Jealousies between siblings. Trying to get the parent approval. Strive for attention.
What is creative self?
The creative self is aware and strives to achieve its unique potential. Ex. any individual that over-comes a physical weakness, and demonstrates this through adult success.
Who was B.F. Skinner?
Who was Abraham Maslow?
What did Maslow believe?
Animals and humans differ because humans desire to achieve self-actualization (a state of a persons full achievement)
What did B.F. Skinner believe?
We should pay attention to how organisms behave, and avoid trying to see within people's minds
Who was Carl Jung?
A trait psycholigist
What did Carl Jung believe?
Greater emphasis on the influences of shared symbols, and religion on behavior.
What did Gordon Allport believe?
He believed traits are inherited, and fixed in the nervous system.
What is the five factor model? (Explain each)
-Extroversion-tend to be active and self-expressive and gain energy from interaction with other people
-Openness to experience
Who is Carl Rogers?
What do humanists believe?
That self-awareness is the core of humanity. They argue that people are truly free to do what they will with their lives.
What is the self theory?
Self concept-a view of oneself as an individual
Congruence-consistency between ones self concept and one's experience
Self Esteem-belief in oneself
Who is Albert Bandura?
What did Albert Bandura believe?
Learning by observation and cognitive processes that produce individual differences.
What are Erkison's stages of psychosocial development? (Compared to Frued's)
Basic trust versus mistrust (oral) birth-1 yr
Autonomy versus shame and doubt (anal)1-3
Initiative versus guilt (phallic)3-6
Industry verses inferiority (latency)6-11
Identity versus role confusion (genital)teens
Intimacy versus isolation [early adulthood]
Generativity versus stagnation [middle adult]
Ego integrity verses despair [late adulthood]
What are the types of defense mechanisms? Please explain.
Repression: removes anxiety causing ideas form conscious awareness by pushing them into the unconscious
Rationalization: use of self-deception to justify unacceptable behaviors or ideas
Displacement: The transfer of an idea or impulse from a threatening or unsuitable object to a less threatening object
Regression: when an individual is under a great deal of stress he or she will return to behavior that is characteristic of an earlier stage of develpment.
Projection: People see their own faults in other people
Reaction formation: act contrary to their genuine feelings in order to keep their true feelings hidden
Denial: a person refuses to accept the reality of anything that is bad or upsetting
Sublimation: channeling their basic impulses into socially acceptable behavior
What is ID?
The two year old child. Wants instant gratification. Pleasure principle.
What is Ego?
Reason and good sense. Reality principle: in the "real world" we cannot always get what we want
What is superego?
Moral principle. Incorporating parental, and community standards the superego provides us with our moral sense. The conscience telling us that it is wrong, or we should feel guilt or shame when doing something outside of community standard.
What is positive regard?
Unconditional-the child is accepted as they regardless of behavior
Conditional- the positivity sonly comes from parent when the behavior is acceptable to parent.