ATH304_Intro

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Author:
itzlinds
ID:
258149
Filename:
ATH304_Intro
Updated:
2014-01-27 17:28:51
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intro modalities
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intro to modalities
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  1. list 3 tissue responses to cellular stress:
    • it adapts to stress
    • it becomes injured, but recovers
    • it dies
  2. list the 3 stages of GAS (general adaption syndrome) of pathology:
    • alarm stage: fight or flight stage
    • resistance stage: maintain homeostasis and/or athletes pleatue
    • exhaustion stage: increased risk of injury ex: shin splints, tendonitis, overuse injuries
  3. tissues organize, grow, and gain strenght along lines of stress is known as:
     wolff's law

    any intervention applied to the body must be at an appropriate intensity for the proper duration to evoke the needed physiologic response
  4. the means of applying various forms of energy to a pt to have a desired effect on the healing environment  is called:

    list 3 types of energy forms:
    therapeutic modalities

    • energy forms can be:
    • thermal: hot pack, cold pack, diathermy
    • mechanical: massage, strectching, ultrasound (sound to heat)
    • electromagnetic: diathermy, light, e-stim

    • AKA: physical agents
  5. describe the philosophy for modalities
    • examination is preformed to identify pts stage of healing (acuity), impairments, fxnal limitations
    • tissue healing is predictable (helps determine return to play)
    • treatment addresses your findings
    • try to manipulate the healing process, phyiscal and fxnal properties to improve fxn
    • here enters modalitites as one mean to do so
  6. list the 4 general effects of therapeutic modalities
    • modify inflammation and healing
    • relieve pain
    • alter collagen extensibility and flexibility
    • modify muscle tone (after surgery, loss of muscle tone)
  7. the transfer of energy to increase or decrease tissue temperature is called:

    list 5 methods of energy transfer:
    thermal agents

    • methods of energy transfer:
    • conduction: transfer of energy thru touch
    • conversion: transfer of one energy to another
    • convection: circulating air (ex: whirlpool)
    • radiation: sun rays absorbed
    • evaporation: sweat leaving the body


    • differing agents have differing depths of penetration and conductivity (hot pack vs ultrasound)
    • hotpack is less than 5 cm
    • ultrasound is more than 5 cm
  8. list 2 means for increasing tissue temperature for physiological response:

    list a mean for decreasing tissue temperature for physiological response:
    • increasing temperature
    • deep heat: ultrasound, diathermy
    • superficial: hot pack, infrared-lamps, parafin

    • decreasing temperature:
    • cryotherapy
  9. list 4 mechanical agents:

    what is the fxn of mechanical agents:
    • sound
    • compression: sequential compression, ace wrap, game ready
    • water: hydrotherapy
    • traction

    fxn: may increase or decrease pressure in the body
  10. list 3 electromagnetic agents:
    • electromagnetic radiation: SWD (short wave diathermy)
    • light: UV, phototherapy, laser
    • electrical current: TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), NMES (neuromuscluar electrical stimulation)

    • -application of electromagnetic energy in form of radiation or electrical current
    • -variation and modulation of energy changes effects and depth of penetration
  11. describe contraindications:

    describe precautions:
    • contraindications:
    • conditions that render a treatment improper or undesirable
    • absolute vs. relative

    • precaution
    • treatment performed with special care and consideration


    • vary according to modality
    • considerations: physiologic effects & distribution of energy (review box 3-1)
  12. list 9 contraindications and precautions to consider:
    • pregnancy
    • malignancy: cancer or hx of
    • pacemaker
    • impaired sensation: potential danger of burns, ect.
    • impaired mentation (ability to communicate)
    • metal implants: burning, warming the plates, or joint cement
    • allergies
    • high blood pressure
    • stents
  13. list 4 descriptors of epithelial tissues:
    • skin lining of vessels and organs
    • high potential to regenerate
    • provides barrier that prevents substances from entering or leaving
    • critical component w/ application of many modalities
  14. list 5 descriptors of adipose tissue:
    • fat cells
    • protects structures
    • high water content
    • insulator: barrier for heat and cold
    • can affect the application of many modalities
  15. list 5 descriptors of connective tissue:

    list 4 types:
    • support cells
    • provides strenght, support, nutirition and defense for other tissues
    • fibroblasts, chondrocytes, myofibroblasts, and adipocytes
    • collegen (11 types - some reports of up to 28 types)
    • restricts ROM (scar tissue)
  16. list the description of muscle tissue:

    list 3 types:
    list 2 fibers:
    • ability to shorten and enlongate
    • types: cardiac, smooth, skeletal

    • type I muscle fiber: endurance
    • type II muscle fiber: fast twitch, more mitochondria, fatiuges easily

    • voluntary vs involuntary recreuitment patterns
    • satillite cells mimic muscle (scar tissue) when torn
  17. describe nervous tissue:

    list the pathway of nervous tissue:
    • sensory receptors
    • ability to carry impulses toward (afferent) or away (efferent) a central structure

    • pathway
    • dendrite
    • body
    • axon
    • synaptic cleft
  18. list and describe the 5 types of afferent nervous tissue:

    Ia:
    Ib:
    II:
    III:
    IV:
    • Ia (A Alpha): muscle spindle
    • Ib (A Alpha): GTO
    • II (A Beta): touch/pressure, secondary muscle (fastest) carries hot, cold, touch to spine
    • III (A Delta): temperature, sharp pain (faster)
    • IV (C): temperature, dull pain
  19. describe the 3 types of efferent nervous tissues:

    A- Alpha:
    A - Gamma:
    A Beta:
    • A-Alpha: skeletal muscle
    • A-Gamma: muscle spindle
    • A-Beta: muscle and muscle spindle
  20. describe the propagation of nerve impulses:

    resting potential:
    action potential:

    myelination:
    • resting potential: + outside, - inside
    • action potential: - outside, + inside
    • all or none
    • refractory peroid

    • unmyelinated
    • myelinated: schwan cells, nodes of Ranvier, faster, more efficient - saltatory conduction
  21. list 6 chemical neurotransmitters that cross the synaptic cleft:
    • acetylcholine
    • dopamine
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • serotonin
    • substance P  ( Table 1-4)

    synapses can be excitatory or inhibitory
  22. define the following legal considerations....

    licensure:
    certification:
    registration:
    exemption:
    • licensure: most restrictive form of regulation. establishes scope of practice, miminal education standards, and protects titles
    • certification: a state based certification test. defines scope of practice, does not protect titles
    • registration: minimal prerequisites. registered professionals may use titles
    • exemption: performs skills and roles of another profession without infringment
  23. define the following terms:

    negligence:
    omission:
    commission:
    • negligence: (form of legal tort) departing from a standard of care
    • omission: fail to do things properly
    • commission: fail to do what is right
  24. list 4 legal considerations for the facility:
    • GFI: ground fault intrupptor
    • whirlpool swithces and line of site (to watch/observe)
    • properly insprection and calibration
    • flooring issues
  25. list 7 possible observations to include in the objective portion of a soap note:
    • temperature
    • color
    • gait
    • posture
    • edema
    • weight bearing
    • atrophy
  26. list 5 possible considerations of pain to include in the objective portion of a soap note:
    • rating
    • best
    • worst
    • changes
    • qualitiy
  27. List 6 things that are the purpose of medical records:
    • communication tool among health care providers
    • document tx and/or rehab progression
    • assist in continuity of care
    • Provides basis for future tx
    • serves as legal document to show that reasonable care was provided 
    • provides database for research
  28. List 6 types of medical records:
    • Medical hx
    • pre-participation physical exam
    • Informed consent forms
    • Injury reports
    • referral forms
    • SOAP Notes

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