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  1. Bivalent
    The structure formed by synapsed homologous chromosomes during prophase of meiosis I. also known as tetrad.
  2. Gametogenesis
    The production of gamete (eggs or sperm)
  3. Meiosis I
    The first cell division of meiosis, in which synapsis and crossing over occur and homologous chromosomes are separated from each other, producing daughter cells with half as many chromosomes (each composed of two sister chromatids) as the parent cell.
  4. Monosomy
    The state of having only one copy of a particular type of chromosome in an otherwise diploid cell.
  5. Homologous Chromosomes or Homologs
    Chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and gene content.
  6. Metaphase Plate
    The plane along which chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell during metaphase of mitosis or of meiosis.
  7. Paternal chromosome
    chromosomes inherited from the father
  8. sex chromosome
    chromosomes that differ in shape or in number in a particular gender.
  9. ploidy
    complete number of chromosome sets present. Haploid = ploidy of 1, diploid = ploidy of 2 and so on.
  10. genetic recombination
    a change in the combination of alleles on a given chromosome, or in an individual.
  11. spindle apparatus
    an array of microtubules responsible for moving chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. microtubules include kinetochore, polar and astral.
  12. Haploid
    # of different chromosomes in a cell.
  13. maternal chromosome
    a chromosome inherited from the mother.
  14. self-fertilization
    an individual forms offspring by forming two gametes
  15. Meiosis II
    Second cell division of meiosis, in which sister chromatids are separated from each other. Similar to mitosis
  16. One daughter cell receives two copies of a particular chromosome and the other daughter cell receives none
  17. synapsis
    joining of two homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. Crossing over happens during this phase.
  18. tetrad
    the structure formed by synapsed homologous chromosomes during prophase of meiosis I.
  19. Gene
    Section of DNA (or RNA for viruses) that encodes  information for building one or more related polypeptides or functional RNA molecules along with the regulatory sequences required for its transcription.
  20. crossing over
    an exchange of segments of non-sister chromatids between a pair of homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis I.
  21. outcrossing
    joining of gametes of different individuals, other than self-fertilization.
  22. non-sister chromatids
    The chromatids of a particular type of chromosome (after replication) with respect to the chromatids of it's homologous chromosome. crossing over happens with non-sister chromatids
  23. trisomy
    three copies one specific type of chromosome in an otherwise diploid cell
  24. Any chromosome other than a sex chromosome
  25. synaptonemal complex
    proteins that hold non-sister chromatids together during synapsis in meiosis I
  26. Chiasma
    the X-shaped structure formed during meiosis by crossing over between non-sister chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes.
  27. aneuploidy
    an abnormal number of copies of a certain chromosome.
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2014-01-24 05:13:23

Ch. 13.
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