Rise of Nationalism

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Rise of Nationalism
2014-01-24 07:24:21

Rise of Nationalism
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  1. Nationalism
    Nationalism is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
  2. Nationhood
    State of an area being a sovereign, unified nation
  3. Irish problem
    Used to describe Irish nationalism and the calls for Irish independence.
  4. Liberal
    Is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
  5. Political goals of liberalism
    This liberal movement began in the 1790s in England and concentrated on parliamentary and electoral reform, emphasizing natural rights and popular sovereignty.
  6. Economic goals of liberalism
    The development of economic classical liberalism took place before and after the French Revolution in Britain, and was based on the following core concepts: classical economics, free trade, laissez-faire government with minimal intervention and taxation and a balanced budget. Classical liberals were committed to individualism, liberty and equal rights.
  7. Conservatism
    Political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional social institutions.
  8. Burschenschaft
    Founded in the 19th century as associations of university students inspired by liberal and nationalistic ideas.
  9. Peterloo
    Occurred at St Peter's Field, Manchester, England, on 16 August 1819, when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 that had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation.
  10. Six acts
    Following the Peterloo Massacre of August 16, 1819, the British government acted to prevent any future disturbances by the introduction of new legislation, the so-called Six Acts which labeled any meeting for radical reform as "an overt act of treasonable conspiracy".
  11. Bourbon restoration
    Period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.The Bourbon Restoration existed from 6 April 1814 until the popular uprisings of the July Revolution of 1830, except for the "Hundred Days" less than a full year into the Restoration, when the Bourbon monarchy had again made themselves unpopular with the general population of France and the family was again forced to flee France for Ghent.
  12. The charter
  13. Ultraroyalism
    were a reactionary faction which sat in the French parliament from 1815 to 1830 under the Bourbon Restoration. The Legitimists, another of the main right-wing families, were disparagingly classified with the Ultras after the 1830 July Revolution by the victors, the Orleanists, who deposed the Bourbon dynasty for the more liberal king Louis-Philippe.
  14. Spanish revolution of 1820
    Colonel Rafael del Riego lead a large part of the Spanish army in a mutiny, demanding a liberal constitution. King Ferdinand VII agrees, but secretly asks for aid from the Congress system which, in the Congress of Verona of 1822, agreed to have France send 100,000, which promptly defeat Regio's forces and reinstall an absolute monarchy.
  15. Greek revolution of 1821
    Between 1821 and 1832, Greek revolutionaries fought a war for Greek Independence from the Ottoman Empire.
  16. Serbian independence
    The Serbian Revolution for independence from the Ottoman Empire lasted eleven years, from 1804 until 1815. The revolution comprised two separate uprisings which gained autonomy from the Ottoman Empire that eventually evolved towards full independence (1835–1867).
  17. Francois Toussaint Louverture
    Was the leader of the Haitian Revolution.
  18. Jose de San Martin
    Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire.
  19. Bernardo O'Higgins
    Chilean independence leader who, together with José de San Martín, freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence.
  20. Simon Bolivar
    Following the triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Hispanic-America, a republic, now known as Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Bolívar is regarded as a hero, visionary, revolutionary, and liberator in Hispanic-America
  21. Miguel Hidalgo
    Was a Jesuit-trained, Mexican priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
  22. Dom Pedro
    Was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.
  23. Decembrist revolution of 1825
    Was a military coup in the Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Juan Lavalle, returning with the troops that fought in the Argentine-Brazilian War, made a coup on December 1, 1828, deposed the governor Manuel Dorrego and closed the legislature.
  24. Charles X of France
    Was known for most of his life as the Count of Artois before he reigned as King of France and of Navarre from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
  25. Louis Philippe
    Was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 in what was known as the July Monarchy.
  26. Revolution of 1830 (France)
    Saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would in turn be overthrown.
  27. The great reform bill in Britain (1832)
    Introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales. According to its preamble, the act was designed to "take effectual Measures for correcting divers Abuses that have long prevailed in the Choice of Members to serve in the Commons House of Parliament".
  28. Catholic emancipation act
    Process in the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws. Requirements to abjure the temporal and spiritual authority of the pope and transubstantiation placed major burdens on Roman Catholics.
  29. George Stephenson
    Was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
  30. Proletarianization
    Is the social process whereby people move from being either an employer, unemployed or self-employed, to being employed as wage labor by an employer. In Marxist theory, proletarianisation is often seen as the most important form of downward social mobility.
  31. Irish potato famine
    Was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration between 1845 and 1852 It is sometimes referred to, mostly outside Ireland, as the Irish Potato Famine because one-third of the population was then solely reliant on this cheap crop for a number of historical reasons.
  32. Chartism
    Working-class movement for political reform in Britain between 1838 and 1848 which took its name from the People's Charter of 1838.
  33. Great exhibition in London
    The temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 11 October 1851. It was the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to become a popular 19th-century feature.
  34. English factory act of 1833
    Were a series of Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to limit the number of hours worked by women and children, first in the textile industry, then later in all industries.
  35. Sir Robert Peel
    Was a British Conservative statesman, who served as prime minister of the United Kingdom from 10 December 1834 to 8 April 1835, and also from 30 August 1841 to 29 June 1846. While home secretary, Peel helped create the modern concept of the police force, leading to a new type of officer known as "bobbies" (in England) and "peelers" (in Northern Ireland), his personal namesakes. As prime minister, Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto (1834) during his brief first period in office, leading to the formation of the Conservative Party out of the shattered Tory Party; in his second administration he repealed the Corn Laws.
  36. Bobbies
    A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit civil disorder.
  37. Auburn system
    A penal method of the 19th century in which persons worked during the day in groups and were kept in solitary confinement at night, with enforced silence at all times.
  38. Philadelphia system
    A form of prison management based on the principle of keeping prisoners in solitary confinement.