cardiac meds

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cardiac meds
2010-07-07 03:41:04
PT Pharmacology cardiac

review of cardiovascular medications
Show Answers:

  1. 4 types of anti-hypertensive meds:

    beta blockers

    Ca+ channel blockers

    alpha blockers
  2. 3 types of diuretics:
    • Thiazides:
    • inhibit tubular reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- in the kidney .: inhibiting water reabsorption and increasing urine volume --> decreased vascular resistance.

    • Loop diuretics:
    • inhibit Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in the loop of henle

    • Patassium sparing diuretics:
    • weak diuretics that prevent hypokalemia
  3. This drug inhibits tubular reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- in the kidney .: inhibiting water reabsorption and increasing urine volume --> decreased vascular resistance.

    NOT for elderly or those with renal dysfunction
    may cause hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, digoxin toxicity

    A) thiazides
    B) potassium sparing diuretics
    C) loop diuretics
    A) thiazides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. This drug inhibits Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in the loop of henle
    more effective
    safe for elderly
    may cause hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, hyperurecemia

    A) thiazides
    B) potassium sparing diuretics
    C) loop diuretics
    C) loop diuretics (lasix, bumex)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. This drug is weak diuretic that prevents hypokalemia
    may cause hyperkalemia if taken with ACE inhibitors or K+ supplements

    A) thiazides
    B) potassium sparing diuretics
    C) loop diuretics
    B) potassium sparing diuretics
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. These cells initiate physiological responses such as increasing the rate and force of contraction of the heart as well as relaxing bronchial and vascular smooth muscle.
    • Beta 1 receptors located in Heart
    • Beta 2 receptors located in lungs and arterioles
  7. beta blockers can be selective or non-selective.
    non-selective block both beta 1 and 2 receptors

    selective block only beta 1 receptors
  8. these antihypertensive drugs block rennin release from the kidneys and decrease CO by slowing down HR.
    Beta blockers (propanolol, nadolol, levatol)

    should be avoided with agina, COPD, and DM
  9. Ca+ does what to muscle tissue?
    causes depolarization which leads to muscle contraction
  10. this antihypertensive drug inhibits the influx of Ca+ ions into myocardial and vascular cells therefore:
    inhibiting the contractile process and allowing for vasodilation of the coronary arteries and decreased peripheral resistance to blood flow.

    may cause:
    signif. bradycardia
    flushing, headache, ankle swelling
    Ca+ channel blockers (procardia, Norvasc, Cardizem, verapamil)

    **verapamil may cause digoxin toxicity and cardiac depression and av block if given with beta blockers**
  11. These are receptors are located in smooth muscle causing arterial and venous vasoconstriction
    alpha 1-adrenergic receptors
  12. These receptors are located in the brainstem and decrease the sympathetic NS signals resulting in decreased HR, peripheral resistance, and BP.
    alpha 2- receptors
  13. this antihypertensive drug causes arterial and venous vasodialtion by blocking these receptors
    alpha 1 blockers
  14. this antihypertensive drug stimulates these receptors in brainstem which decreases the sympathetic NS signals
    alpha 2 blockers
  15. chest pain described as a discomfort, heaviness, pressure, aching, burning, fullness, squeezing, or painful feeling due to coronary heart disease.
  16. this angina drug causes peripheral vasodialtion therefore reducing the work of the heart and decreasing oxygen demand. may also relieve coronary spasm and cause vasodialation of the collateral vessels of the heart.
    sublingual nitroglycerin
  17. what should you do if after 3 tablets of nitroglycerin the patient continues to have angina?
    call EMS as the patient may be having an MI
  18. who is the nitro spray given to?
    patients with RA who may have trouble manipulating the tiny sublingual tablets.
  19. when are nitro patches and oinments used?
    for chronic angina therapy
  20. other choices for angina therapy:
    beta and Ca+channel blockers

    anti-anxiety agents (zoloft, paxil, ativan) for strees related angina

    NO to trycyclic antidepressants
  21. two types of heart failure:

    1)reduced venous return to heart,increased pulm artery press, peripheral edema

    2)reduced CO with decreased blood pumped into system
    1)right sided heart failure

    2)left sided heart failure
  22. Drug Treatment for Hrt Failure in order:
    • ACEI's
    • Loop diuretics
    • Non-selective Beta blockers with selective alpha 1 blockers
    • digoxin
  23. conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II causes what?
    vascular smooth muscle contraction
  24. This drug is for the initial treatment for heart failure.
    it inhibits angiotensin I from converting to angiotensin II
    it inhibits secreation of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex --> decreases Na+ and H2O retention
    increases vasodilation and decreases peripheral resistance
    ACE inhibitiors
  25. ACE inhibitors + diuretics = heart failure treatment
    ACE inhibitors + Ca+ channel blockers = ?
    HTN only!
  26. This cardiac drug is used with systolic dysfunction and arrythmias
    it increases force of contraction without increasing O2 demand
    may increase ejection fraction
  27. vasodilators with ACEI's =?

    vasodilators with beta blockers =?
    increased CHF survival

    HTN treatment