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  1. cough
    -occurring frequently
    With or without secretions
    -hacking vs whooping
    • Constant
    • -intermittend
    • Productive vs. nonproductive
    • Series of dry coughs vs. sudden periodic cough which ends with a whooping sound
  2. Causes of coughs
    • 1 allergic reactions
    • 2.lung diseases

    • 3.Respiratory infections
    • 4. Heart conditions
  3. intercostal retraction
    • Visible sinking of tissues around and between the ribs
    • Occurs when additional effort is used to breathe
  4. substernal retraction
    Tissues are drawn in beneath the sternum
  5. suprasternal retraction
    Tissues are drawn in above the clavicle (shoulder girdle)
  6. wheezes
    • High pitched, continuous sounds, usually heard on expiration
    • Caused by narrowing the airways
    • Can often be heard without a stethoscope
  7. rhonchi
    Low pitched , continuous, gurgling sound

    Caused by secretions in the large airways

    They often clear with coughing
  8. crackles
    • Discontinuous sounds usually heard on inspiration, may be heard throughout
    • -high pitched, popping or low pitched bubbling, like rubbing strands of hair together
    • -caused by fluid in the alveoli
  9. stridor
    • Piercing high pitched sound
    • Can be heard without a stethoscope
    • Primarily during inspiration

    • By infants experiencing respiratory distress or
    • An obstructed airway
  10. stertor
    Labored breathing

    Produces a snoring sound
  11. Respiratory rate
    Number of times a person breathes
  12. Apnea
    Absence of breathing
  13. bradypnea
    Slow respirations

    < 10 breaths per minute
  14. Eupnea
    Normal respiration

    Equal rate and depth

    12 -20 per minuter
  15. Tachypnea
    Fast respirations

    > 24 breaths per minute

    Usually shallow
  16. Kussmaul's respiration
    Regular but abnormally deep and increased in rate
  17. cheyne-stokes respiration
    Gradual increase in respiration followed by gradual decrease and the a period of apnea
  18. Respiratory effort
    • Degree of work required to breathe
    • (Normal is effortless)
    • Asthma or pneumonia
  19. dyspnea
    Labored breathing


    Often produces fatigue and fear
  20. orthopnea
    Difficulty or inability to breathe in the horizontal position
  21. Tidal volume / respiratory depth
    Amount of air taken in on inspiration

    Healthy adult: 300-500 ml

    • estimate by watching the depth of the breath
    • (deep, shallow, normal)
  22. ABG
    Arterial blood gas sampling
    Directly measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, and blood-ph pressures in an artery

    Puncture of artery and testing of sample

    Invasive, painful, expensive, time consuming
  23. Pulse oximetry
    device measures oxygen saturation ( oximeter emits light measures light passing through )

    Clinicians may  become dependent on this device or trust erroneous readings
  24. hypoxia
    Possible causes
    Decreased oxygen intake, decreased ability of tissues to remove oxygen from blood, impaired ventilation of perfusion, impaired gas exchange between blood and alveoli, inadequate levels of hemoglobin
  25. hyperventilation
    Rapid and deep breathes result in excess loss of CO 2 (hypocapnea)

    Feeling lightheaded, tingly

    Anxiety, infection, shoch, hypoxia, drugs, diabetes, acid-base imballance
Card Set:
2014-01-25 02:18:26

Verbs, descriptions, causes
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