Alterations of Consciousness

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Alterations of Consciousness
2014-01-26 14:22:16
Chapter Three

Nervous system, Polosomnography, Sleep stages, Sleep disorders
Show Answers:

  1. What type of instrument is used for defining the physiological changes associated with sleep ?
    Electroencephalograph (EEG)
  2. What waves are greater than 13 cycles per second ?
    Beta waves
  3. What waves are 8-13 cycles per second ?
    Alpha waves
  4. What waves are 4-7 cycles per second ?
    Theta waves
  5. What waves are less than 4 cycles per second ?
    Delta waves
  6. What type of instrument is used forĀ  detecting eye movements through electrodes taped close to the eye ?
    Electrooculograph (EOG)
  7. What type of instrument measures muscle tension through electrodes placed beneath the chin ?
    Electromyograph (EMG)
  8. What type of drug blocks neuroreceptors ?
  9. What is Candace Pert the founder of ?
  10. What are the groups of nerve cells that in various parts of the brain synchronize the electrochemical activity of other groups of nerve cells ?
  11. What sleep stage lasts 1-7 minutes that includes; Theta waves, slow and slow rolling eye movement ?
    Stage 1
  12. What sleep stage includes the presence of K complexes and sleep spindles against a background of mixed frequencies predominantly in the Theta range ?
    Stage 2
  13. What is a waveform lasting for a least .5 seconds that consists of a sharp negative component 'several hundred micro-volts' in amplitude followed by a positive slow wave ?
    K Complex (1-3 per minute)
  14. What is a brain wave of about 12-14 cps lasting .5 - 1.5 seconds and often waxes and wanes in amplitude ?
    Sleep Spindle (3-8 per minute)
  15. What stages are known as Slow-wave sleep ?
    Stages 3-4
  16. Where is there no eye movements and while muscle tensions is still present, the levels are low ?
    Slow-wave Sleep
  17. What stage is where the body restores itself and increases growth hormones in children ?
    Non-REM sleep (Stages 1-4)
  18. What REM sleep includes muscle twitching with bursts of eye movements ?
    Phasic REM sleep
  19. What REM sleep includes few or no eye movements and muscle twitches ?
    Tonic REM sleep
  20. What hormone is secreted by the tutelary glands and allow an individual to just lie awake in complete darkness and still get the benefits of sleep ?
  21. What term refers to the time that it takes to fall asleep ?
    Sleep Latency
  22. What term refers to the ratio of actual time spent asleep to time spent in bed ?
    Sleep Efficiency
  23. What term refers to the overall balance of sleep and wakefulness during a night of sleep ?
    Sleep Continuity
  24. What drug can inhibit movement during sleep ?
  25. Can people still dream in non-REM sleep ?
    Yes, but because less brain waves we forget the dreams due to the feeling of grogginess
  26. Who conducted the study where participates awakened from REM sleep 74% reported detailed dreams involving visual imagery, and when awakened from Non-REM sleep 9% reported dreams at all ?
  27. What is Soliloquy ?
    When you are talking when you are sleeping
  28. Is it true that REM sleep dream reports were significantly longer, had more characters other than oneself as well as having more undefined characters such as groups of people, and contained more emotion than SWS dream reports ?
  29. What is considered to be core sleep ?
    First three stages
  30. During NREM sleep noradrenalin and serotonin decrease allowing what neurotransmitter to become active ?
  31. What drug potentiates the effects of noradrenalin and serotonin through a number of mechanisms ?
  32. What drug increases sleep latency, worsens sleep continuity, increases body movements, reduces the total amount of sleep and decreases SWS and REM sleep ?
  33. Which drug slows down the re uptake of noradrenalin, and reduces total amount of sleep ?
  34. What drug reduces total sleep time and REM sleep, stimulates the opiate receptors and activates dopamine associated with experience of pleasure ?
  35. What sleeping disorder includes symptoms of; irresistible sleep attacks, cataplectic attacks, and sleep paralysis
  36. What symptom includes an individual falling asleep at anytime, anywhere for a time frame of a few minutes to more than an hour ?
    Sleep attacks
  37. What symptom includes bilateral muscle weakness that can occur spontaneously or can be brought on by emotions such as laughter, anger, stress, fatigue, or heavy meals
    Cataplectic attack
  38. What symptom includes partial or total paralysis lasting a few seconds or minutes that occurs during transitions between sleep and wakefulness ?
    Sleep paralysis
  39. What is the term where an individual visualizes vivid images while falling asleep ?
  40. What is the term where an individual visualizes vivid images while waking up ?
  41. What is the term that describes experiences that appear to occur outside of one's body, including seeing one's body lying some distance below oneself ?
  42. What disorder includes an person falling asleep, her muscles relax, and the upper airway becomes blocked so that she cannot breathe. While she is not breathing, the level of carbon dioxide in the blood increases until the increase is registered by the nervous system, which wakes the person up enough to restore muscle tension, thereby opening the upper airway and allowing her to breathe ?
    Sleep Apnea
  43. What is the term called when the throat does not always fall completely shut, causing apnea, but may close only partially, as evidenced by snoring ?
  44. What is continuous positive airway pressure ?
    A method of treating breathing-related sleep disorders
  45. What disorder refers to sleeplessness, difficulty falling asleep, nighttime awakenings, and early morning awakening ?
  46. When do nightmares usually occur ?
    Second half of the night during REM sleep
  47. What usually occurs during NREM sleepĀ  consisting of sitting up during sleep, emitting a piercing cry, and showing behavioral features of acute terror lasting about 30 seconds to 5 minutes ?
    Night terrors
  48. Who was the individual who slept walked and drove and killed his parents in law due to noninsane automatism ?
  49. What is the cause of a disconnection between consciousness1 and consciousness2 that is instructive to remember when we consider other alterations of consciousness in which aspects of the psyche appear to become dissociated from one another ?