Domain 2 - Networking

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Domain 2 - Networking
2014-01-31 15:34:19
comptia networking

comptia a+ networking
Show Answers:

  1. What are the advantages of fiber optic cable?
    greater distances without repeater and immune to EMI
  2. What are the features of Category 6 cable?
    Cat 6 is specified to extend bandwidth from 100 MHz to 200 MHz, which gives greater capacity, throughput, and reliability.
  3. What is this?
    Bayonet Neill-Concelman (BNC) connector.  Used for 10Base2 Ethernet networks with coaxial cable.
  4. What kind of connector do you use with UTP cable?
  5. What kind of connectors do you use with coaxial cable?
    BNC, F-Type, and AUI
  6. What is this?
    F-type connector, used for broadband cable connections with coaxial cable
  7. What is this?
    Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) connector, used for Ethernet connections
  8. What is this?
    RJ-11, used for modem connections to phone line
  9. What is this?
    RJ-45, used for Ethernet connections with twisted pair cables
  10. What are these?
    ST & SC connectors, used for fiber optic cables
  11. How fast is 10Base-T?
    10Base-T ethernet is 10 Mbps.
  12. How fast is 1000Base-T?
    1000Base-T ethernet (aka Gigabit ethernet) is 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps). It uses copper UTP cables (Cat5 or higher).
  13. Which Ethernet networks use UTP?
  14. What Ethernet networks use fiber optic cables?
                   -F, -L, -S, and -E
  15. What is the maximum length of UTP when used for Ethernet?
    100 m.
  16. Describe Ethernet.
    Ethernet is wired, LAN standard.  Hubs operate at half-duplex mode.  Can use switch for full-duplex mode.
  17. What is the difference between half-duplex and full-duplex?
    In half-duplex mode, the path between devices is shared, so a device can only send data when no other device is sending data. Full-duplex mode (aka double-duplex) allows multiple devices to send data at the same time.
  18. Describe coaxial cable.
    A central copper conductor surrounded by an insulator, which is then surrounded by a second metal mesh conductor.
  19. Describe twisted-pair cable.
    Conductors are twisted around each other to eliminate crosstalk.
  20. What does an IP address class signify?
    The default network address portion of the IP address (aka subnet mask)
  21. For Class A IP addresses, what is the first octet and subnet mask?
    • First octet would be 1-127
    • Subnet mask is
  22. For Class B IP addresses, what is the first octet and subnet mask?
    • First octet would be 128-191
    • Subnet mask is
  23. For Class C IP addresses, what is the first octet and subnet mask?
    • First octet would be 192-223
    • Subnet mask is
  24. What can you do to resolve a hostname into its associated IP address?
    Use Domain Name System (DNS) to get IP address from host name.  You can also use local hosts file to map host names into IP addresses (C:Windowssystem32driversetc)
  25. What is APIPA?
    Automatic Private IP Addressing - IP addresses assigned to Windows DHCP clients if a server does jot assign the client an IP address
  26. What is the range of IP addresses for APIPA?
    Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) or auto-IP uses -
  27. What is a default gateway?
    A router or node on TCP/IP network that serves as an access point for other networks.
  28. Describe the format of an IPv4 address.
    decimal numbers organized into 4 octets separated by periods
  29. Describe the format of an IPv6 address.
    • 32 hexadecimal numbers organized into 8 quartets separated by colons
    • 128-bit number (128 binary digits)
    • ranges 0-9 and A-F
    • leading 0's can be omitted
    • double colon can replace block of consecutive 0's, but only once in address
  30. What is HTTPS?
    Secure form of HTTP that uses SSL as sublayer for security
  31. Explain differences between IMAP, SMTP, and POP3.
    • IMAP allows mail server to keep copy of message on server after they are downloaded. Port 143.
    • SMTP allows user to send email to server but it can't retrieve messages from server. Ports 25 & 587.
    • POP3 can retrieve messages from server, but messages are deleted after they have been downloaded. Port 110.
  32. Explain difference between FTP & TFTP.
    • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - file transfer with user authentication. Ports 20 & 21.
    • TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) - file transfer without user authentication. Port 69
  33. What is SSH?
    Secure Shell Protocol - used to securely access console prompt of remote computer. Port 22.
  34. What is SNMP?
    Simple Network Management Protocol - used to remotely monitor and manage network devices and hosts. Port 161
  35. What is LDAP?
    Lightweight Directory Access Protocol - used to access information stored in directory service on server. Port 389.
  36. What is RDP?
    Remote Desktop Protocol (Microsoft) - used to access desktop of remote systems.  Port 3389
  37. What is SFTP?
    Secure File Transfer Protocol - used to securely transfer files between hosts.  Port 22 (same as SSH)
  38. What is NTP?
    Network Time Protocol - used for time synchronization.  Port 123
  39. What is DNS?
    Domain Name Service - Translates easily-memorized domain names to their IP addresses. Port 53.
  40. What is IP Protocol?
    Internet Protocol in the protocol of the Internet.  It delivers packets from the source host to the destination host based on the IP addresses in the packet headers.
  41. What is PPP?
    Point-to-Point Protocol - Establishes a direct connection between 2 networking nodes. Usually used with modem connections.
  42. What is UDP?
    User Diagram Protocol - used with Internet Protocol to create unacknowledged connections between server application and clients; because packets are unacknowledge, latency will be dramatically reduced, providing better streaming performance
  43. What is TCP?
    Transmission Control Protocol - Used with Internet Protocol; uses acknowledged connections
  44. What is ICMP?
    Internet Control Message Protocol - used to send and receive error messages on IP network
  45. What is IGMP?
    Internet Group Management Protocol - used to manage membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups
  46. What is SMB?
    Server Message Block - used in Windows to access shared resources over network. Port 445.
  47. What does a firewall do?
    Allows or rejects packets based on packet characteristics such as address, port, or protocol type.
  48. What is DHCP?
    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - used by servers to automatically assign IP addresses to computers
  49. What is the best way to protect wireless access point from unauthorized configuration settings?
    Change admin password; defaults can be found on the internet
  50. Where is the worst place to locate an access point in a building?
    Along perimeter walls and on first few floors
  51. You know you've installed an access point with a range beyond the walls of the building. What are two things you can do to protect the network?
    • Disable DHCP on the access point; this prevents addresses from being automatically assigned by the system and requires a user know your network's IP addressing scheme to gain access
    • Configure access point to filter out unauthorized MAC addresses; this denies access to unauthorized systems.
  52. What wireless security methods use 802.1x for authentication (i.e. usernames and passwords or smartcards) to authenticate wireless clients?
    WPA Enterprise and WPA2 Enterprise
  53. What wireless security methods use a common shared key configured on a wireless access point and all wireless clients?
    WEP, WPA, and WPA2
  54. What is a NAT server?
    Network Address Translation Server - translates IP addresses on your private network; this allows multiple computers to share a single IPv4 address
  55. What are the IP addresses used by a NAT server?
    • -
    • -
    • -
  56. List the steps for troubleshooting a modem.
    • Verify modem has dial tone.
    • Verify modem dials correct number.
    • Verify receiving device answers call.
    • Verify network parameters (TCP/IP settings and connection settings).
    • Verify authentication and log-on parameters.
  57. What is CSU/DSU?
    • Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit = digital interface device used to connect router to
    • digital circuit like T1 or T3 line
  58. What is DTE?
    • Data Terminal Equipment = end instrument that converts user information into signals for
    • transmission or reconverts received signals into user information
  59. What is TDM?
    • Time-Division Multiplexing = type of digital or (rarely) analog multiplexing in which two or
    • more signals or bit streams are transferred apparently simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but physically are taking turns on the channel
  60. What is a switch?
    Device for changing the course (or flow) of a circuit
  61. What should you be aware of when installing a satellite internet connection?
    Satellite dish must be pointed in correct direction; satellite is used for downloads and phone line is used for uploads.  Connect satellite modem/router to satellite disk using coaxial cable (RG-6) and F-type connector.  Connect modem/router to computer using USB or Ethernet.
  62. What type of cables and connectors do cable modems use?
    Coaxial cable (RG-6) and F-type connector
  63. What kind of cables and connectors does Ethernet use?
    Cat5 or Cat6 UTP and RJ-45 connectors
  64. What kind of internet connections use RJ-11 connectors?
    DSL routers and dial-up modems
  65. You are installing a DSL line.  What would be part of the configuration?
    • Install internal DSL card in computer or connect DSL router to phone line.
    • Use phone cable (RJ-11) to connect DSL card or router to phone line.
    • For ADSL (dial-up), use filters (splitters) on the line everywhere an analog phone is used.
    • Do not install a filter on the line connected to the DSL router.
  66. How do you access the Internet via a cellular network on a laptop?
    Install a cellular adapter in PCMCIA, ExpressCard, or USB slot, then install and configure software
  67. What is BRI?
    Basic Rate Interface = standard ISDN offering for household service;dial-up connection with two 64 Kbps data (bearer) channels and a single control (delta) channel; two channels can be bonded together
  68. What is ISDN?
    • ISDN = digital service operating over standard telephone company copper wiring offered in a
    • variety of configurations; consists of multiple 64 Kbps channels
  69. What physical topology uses a switch or hub to connect multiple devices?
  70. Which physical topology uses one device to connect all others?
  71. What is bandwidth?
    Rating of how much data can be sent over a network
  72. Explain bus topology.
    Messages are broadcast to all devices connected to network; all devices are connected to a trunk cable.
  73. Describe LAN.
    Small geographic area, like an office
  74. Describe PAN.
    Components such as laptops, mobile devices, printers, mice, keyboards, etc. within a person range (10 meters or less)
  75. Describe WAN.
    Geographically far apart
  76. What is VPN?
    Private network extended over a shared or public network such as the internet
  77. What is a switch?
    A switch has multiple ports and connects multiple segments or devices. The switch forwards frames to the appropriate port.
  78. Explain the difference among a hub, repeater, switch, bridge, and router.
    Hubs and repeaters send signals to all other ports.  They do not examine the frame or packet contents. 

    Switches and bridges use MAC address in frame to determine where to forward. 

    Routers use IP address in packet to determine where to forward.
  79. How do switches and bridges learn the addresses of devices connected to them?
    By copying the MAC address of the source device and placing it into the MAC address table.  The port number where the frame entered is also recorded in the table and associated with the source MAC address.
  80. What will a switch do if it receives a frame addressed to an unknown device?
    It will send the frame to all the ports (except the one on which it was received).  After it learns which port was correct, it will send the frame only to that port.
  81. Do switches and hubs have guaranteed bandwidth for each port?
    • Switch = yes
    • Hub = no; shares bandwidth among ports
  82. You are attaching an RJ-45 connector to Cat 6 UTP cable.  According to T568A standard, which wire should be connected to pin 1?
    Green w/white