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Types of Alcohol
There are four different types of alcohol.
Ethyl Alcohol - is used in beverages. It is a odorless, colorless, and flammable liquid that has an intoxicating effect on the body. It is a depressant drug because it slows the functions of the central nervous system (including breathing rate and heart rate.)
Methyl Alcohol - is a poisonous alcohol used in dissolving agents, antifreeze, lacquers, solvents, and varnishes.
Denatured Alcohol - is rubbing alcohol. It is a combination of ethyl alcohol and added materials that make it undrinkable.
Proof Alcohol - is two times the percentage of alcohol by volume. Ex: 100 proof = 50% alcohol.
What does a serving size of alcohol equal?
A serving size of alcohol is equal to...
(1) 12 ounce can of beer
(1) 5 ounce glass of wine
(1) 1/2 ounce of liquor
Give 5 reasons why people drink alcohol...
- 1. depression
- 2. stress
- 3. peer pressure
- 4. addiction
- 5. to relax
Give 5 reasons why people do not drink alcohol...
- 1. don't like the taste
- 2. health issues
- 3. family history of alcohol abuse
- 4. pregnancy
- 5. religious issues
Facts About Alcohol
5 oz. of wine = 1/2 ounce of alcohol
1 can (12 oz.) beer = 1/2 ounce alcohol
1 1/2 oz. shot = 1/2 ounce alcohol
Most beers contain 3 - 8% alcohol
Most wine contains 8 - 14% alcohol
Most hard liquor contains 40 - 50% alcohol
Proof indicates the concentration of alcohol in a beverage. The amount of alcohol is determined by dividing the proof number in half. The higher the proof, the stronger the alcohol.
100% alcohol is 200 Proof
43% alcohol is 86 Proof
12% alcohol is 24 Proof
6% alcohol is 12 Proof
50% alcohol is 100 Proof
The Path of Alcohol
3. Small Intestines
1. Mouth - alcohol is consumed and passes down the esophagus.
2. Stomach - A little alcohol (10%) goes through the stomach walls and into the bloodstream, but most passes into the small intestines.
3. Small Intestines - Alcohol is rapidly absorbed through the walls of the small intestines and into the bloodstream.
4. Bloodstream - The heart pumps the blood (and the alcohol) to all parts of the body.
5. Brain - Alcohol goes to the brain almost as soon as it is consumed. The alcohol keeps passing trough the brain until the liver has had a chance to oxidize it (burn it up).
6. Liver - The liver burns up or oxidizes the alcohol at the rate of 1/2 oz. per hour. This process of oxidation is when the liver changes alcohol into water, carbon dioxide, and energy. The body then eliminates the water by sweating and going to the bathroom. The carbon dioxide is eliminated through breathing. This is why it is possible to smell alcohol the breath of a person who has been drinking.
Parts of the Brain
Cerebrum - Controls voluntary actions and control of ability to reason.
Medulla - (Located above the spinal cord) Controls involuntary actions, such as breathing, digestion, heartbeat, and circulation.
Cerebellum - (Located next to the Medulla) Controls coordination, muscular control, balance.
Spinal Cord -Sends messages to and from the brain and body organs.
The Effect of Alcohol on the Brain
Drinking alcohol can effect people in different ways… Below are the effects of alcohol based on a 130 lb. person who has consumed alcohol in a 1 - 2 hour span of time.
1 -2 Drinks ( BAC .01 to .05) - The person's systems begin to slow down. The person becomes relaxed, less inhibited, and has a slight decrease in fine motor skills. The person should wait at least an hour before driving.
3 - 4 Drinks (BAC .05 - .10) - Fine motor skills are decreased and performance and responsiveness are reduced. There is a reduction in judgement as well as reaction time. People may feel more alert and talkative, but, in reality, the systems are slowed.
5 - 7 Drinks (.10 - .18) - The senses are dulled. Especially speech and vision. Balance is altered and person may stagger. There is a decreased sense of pain.
8 - 12 Drinks (BAC .20 to .33) - The reflex actions are decreased and body temperature drops. Blood circulation slows and so does respiration. Unconsciousness may occur. Further drinking my cause coma and eventual death from alcohol overdose.
How Alcohol Affects a Person
Alcohol affects people in different ways. Below are some of the things that can effect a person.
How fast a person drinks.
How many drinks you drink.
Your body weight.
How much drinking you have done in the past.
How much food is in the stomach.
What your thoughts are about drinking.
Where you are when you drink.
Your liver and alcohol...
The liver can oxidize or burn up approximately 1/2 ounce of alcohol per hour.
Nothing can speed up this process.
It is always better to wait at least one hour per drink before driving. Or, have a designated driver drive you home.
Stages of Alcoholism
- Makes promises to quit and can't keep them.
- Drinks often to relieve tension.
- Increased tolerance (need more to feel the effects)
- Personality changes.
- Memory blackouts.
- More forgetful.
- More irritable.
Tries to deny or hide drinking.
- Drinks when alone.
- Drinks in the morning.
- Signs of drinking more noticeable.
- Drinks at work or school.
- Harder to feel "high" no matter how much consumed.
- Drinking a daily necessity.
- Isolation from friends.
- Isolation from family.
- Lives to drink.
- Never seems to eat.
- Takes vitamins and tranquilizers, but neither helps.
- Very tense… Very irritable.
- Liquor more important then family or job.
- Tremors (shakes).
- Weakness due to malnutrition.
Harmful Effects of Alcohol
Alcohol has both short and long-term effete on many different body systems.
Heart - (Immediate) Increased heart rate
(Long-term) Irregular heartbeat, heart muscle damage.
Liver - (Immediate) Processes of the liver, which filters out over 90% of the alcohol in the body may become unbalanced.
(Long-term) Cirrhosis or scarring and destruction of liver tissue and liver cancer. Both can cause death.
Kidneys - (Immediate) Increased urination, which can result in dehydration, headache, or dizziness)
(Long-term) Kidney failure resulting from high blood pressure.
Blood Vessels - (Immediate) Enlarged blood vessels, creating false sense of warmth.
(Long-term) High blood pressure; stroke.
Stomach - (Immediate) Vomiting, which can lead to death.
(Long-term) Ulcers (open sores) in the stomach lining; stomach cancer.
What is binge drinking?
Binge drinking is consuming large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time. Can cause overdose and possible death.
What is a hangover?
A hangover is an after effect of using alcohol and other drugs. A hangover may involve a headache, increase sensitivity to sounds, nausea, vomiting, tiredness, and irritability. Hangovers interfere with life demands.
What is a blackout?
A blackout is a period in which a person cannot remember what had happened. They are still conscious and moving around but the next day they do not remember what they did during the black out period.
What is the Zero Tolerance Law?
The Zero Tolerance Law states that any driver under 21 may not consume any alcohol at all.
Alcohol is a leading cause of death. Almost every part of the body is harmed when people drink large quantities of alcohol.
Nervous System - Drinking impairs the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Dementia is a decline in mental functioning. People with alcohol related dementia can reverse effects if they stop drinking.
Digestive System - Drinking increases the risk of developing cancers of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach. Drinking also increases the risk of developing liver disease. Alcohol hepatitis is a condition in which the liver swells due to alcohol.
Immune System - Drinking depresses the function of the immune system. This increases the risk of developing certain illnesses such as respiratory infections, tuberculosis, and certain cancers.
Cardiovascular System - People who drink run a greater risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, and stroke. They can also develop cardiomyopathy which is a disease where the heart muscles weaken and enlarge, causing blood not to be pumped effectively.
Affects of Alcohol on the Body
Alcohol causes people to go to the bathroom more frequently.
Urinary System - Longterm, heavy drinking can cause kidney failure.
What effect does alcohol have on the reproductive system?
Reproductive system - drinking can have significant effects on the reproductive system.
In females… it can cause breast cancer later in life.
In males… it can affect the size of the testes and the development of muscle mass. It can also affect the age at which the voice deepens and the amount of body and facial hair.
Drinking Alcohol during Pregnancy
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause developmental problems for the baby.
It can also cause miscarriage and stillbirth.
What is the name of the disease a baby can be born with?
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) - is the presence of severe birth defects in babies.
The following statements about alcohol are TRUE….
Beer, rum, and vodka all have the same strength. Beer is not weaker than rum and vodka.
Alcohol is digested quickly into the body… much quicker than food.
Alcohol is a depressant.
The liver is the organ that oxidizes or burns up alcohol in the body at the rate of 1/2 ounce per hour.
The body can eliminate 1/2 ounce of alcohol per hour.
BAC or BAL refers to the blood alcohol content/level in the blood.
Black coffee and a cold shower CANNOT sober you up. Your body has to eliminate the alcohol in your bloodstream to sober you up.
Alcohol does the greatest damage to the liver, brain, and heart.
Alcohol is high in calories and has no nutritional value.