Biology 1215-Chapter 4
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plants evolved from a green algal group called the?
Many of the distinctive plant features are terrestrial adaptations. What are the 7 terrestrial adaptions for plants?
- 1.Need different aerial and subterranean specializations (live in 2 worlds)
- 2.Egg is fertilized and develops into embryo without leaving the female plant
- 3.lifecycle alternates between sporophyte (2n) and gametophyte (n)
- 4.waxy cuticle on outside of leaves
- 6.vascular tissues
- 7.plant secondary compounds
where are the localized areas of cell divisions in plants? (where growth occurs)
what is the term for multicellular diploid and multicellular haploid?
- multicellular diploid= sporophyte (2n)multicellular haploid=gametophyte (n)
what stage in fertilization do plats have that animals don't have?
which stage is dominant in primitive plants? Give an example.
- gametophyte (n) is dominant
- ex. mosses
which stage is dominant in "advanced" group of plants? Give an example.
- sporophyte (2n) is dominant
- ex. conifers and flowering plants
Where in a plant are haploid spores produced?
where in plants are haploid gametes produced?
Swimming sperm are produced in _______________.
______________ produce and hold one egg each.
How do the sperm find the eggs in plants?
where does they fertilization and embryo development occur in plants?
what is the function of waxy cuticle on outside of leaves?
lessens water loss
what is the stomata?
"valved" openings into the leaf interior that allow gasses to enter but minimize water loss because underside of leaf
what are the most primitive plants called?
what are vascular tissues (2) and what are the 2 types?
- tubes for conducting fluids
- not found in most primitive plants
- two types: xylem and phloem
what is the function of the xylem? what is it made out of?
- carries water and minerals upwards only
- made out of dead cells
what is the function of the phloem? what is it made of?
- carries sugar-rich sap up or down
- made of living cells
what are the functions of plants secondary compounds? what are 2 examples?
- defend against natural enemies by being poisonous, stinky or distasteful.
- ex. milkweed and tobacco
what are the 4 major taxa of plants?
- seedless vascular plants
- Seed plants: Gymnosperms
- seed plants: Angiosperms
what re 5 major characteristics of bryophytes?
- most primitive plants
- avascular (no vascular tissues)
- no waxy cuticle
- gametophyte (n) is dominant
- sperm must swim to egg in archegonium
Give examples of 2 types of bryophytes?
why do mosses grow in clumps?
for support and it helps hold water
Mosses contribute to a build up of partially decomposed plant material called?
give 3 characteristics of liverworts?
- lobed bodies
- reproduce asexually via gemmae
- sexual reproduction similar to mosses
seedless vascular plants appeared in the ____________ period. (400mya)
Seedless vascular plants are the first plants with?
lignified vascular tissues and true roots and leaves
The seedless vascular plants are _____________ dominant.
sporophyte dominant (but still has independent gametophyte)
what are the 2 types of modern seedless vascular plants? (2 phylum's)
- club mosses
- phylum pterophyta which include horsetails and ferns
what stage is dominant in club mosses and they have microphylls, what are they?
- sporophyte dominant
- microphylls = small true leaves
what are 3 characteristics about horsetails? (HINT: stem, habitat, and survival)
- stems have distinct nodes with air canals and silica
- most common in moist habitats
- now only one genus survives
what stage are most common ferns?
fern compound leaves are called?
In ferns, sporangia are in _______ under the leaves.
Seed plants show more adaptations to a terrestrial environment, by what 2 ways?
- Gametophytes are no longer independent individuals
what happens to female and male gametophytes in seed plants?
- female gametophyte reduced and held within an ovule in the sporophyte
- male gametophyte become pollen
what is the function of the pollen?
to deliver male gametes to the eggs in the ovule
what are seeds?
baby sporophyte (2n) embryo, food supply and a protective coat (which was the ovule)
what are the 2 main groups of seed plants?
what does gymnosperms mean?
- "naked seed"
- seeds are not in a fruit
when did gymnosperms become diverse?
became diverse when climate dried after the carboniferous
what are the 3 modern gymnosperms phyla?
- ginkos= fan shaped leaves
- cycads= resemble palms
- conifers= most diverse (trees with cones)
what are the 3 dry adaptations the conifers made?
- needle-shaped leaves with thick waxy cuticle
- smaller surface to volume ratio
- stomata in pits
what stage are conifers most seen?
where are the sporangia on conifers?
separate male and female cones
Describe the fertilization of conifers.
- pollen from male cone is blown by wind to female cone
- pollen tube grows into ovule
- fertilization (2n embryo grows)
- ovule becomes seed (gametophyte becomes food)
- female cones open and seeds fall away
what are the male and female parts of a flower?
- male: stamen which includes anther and filament
- female: carpel which have stigma, style and ovary
what part of the flower produces the pollen and what is the function of the stigma?
- anther produces pollen
- stigma catches pollen
what is the function of the ovary and petal?
- ovary protects ovules
- petal attracts pollinators
what is the sepal?
modified small leaves
grasses are in a group that are ________ pollinated.
how are fruits formed and what is it's function?
- fruits formed from ripened ovary
- function is to aid in dispersal
what are the 3 types of fruits? Describe them.
- simple fruits: develop from single ovary (ex. apple)
- aggregate fruits: several ovaries from one flower (ex. raspberry)
- multiple fruits: formed from several separate flowers (ex. pineapple)
what are the 5 innovations of angiosperms?
- many use animals for transferring pollen
- more vascular tissues than gymnosperms
- pollen grain contains 2 haploid nuclei
what are the steps of fertilization for angiosperms?
- pollen lands on stigma
- pollen tube grows down ovaries (by chemotoaxis)
- 2 sperm cells enter an ovule (double fertilization)
- one fertilizes the egg to form zygote
- other fuses with 2 haploid cells to produce 3n endosperm
what is the function of endosperm?
multiplies to form food for the embryo
embryonic first leaf
how does the mutualism between plants and pollinators work?
- plants give pollen (proteins and nutrients) and nectar to pollinators
- pollinators transport the pollen
Describe monocots based on theses features: cotyledon, stem, leaf, flowers pars, roots
- one cotyledon
- vascular bundles scattered in stem
- leaf veins form parallel pattern
- flower petals in 3's and multiples of 3
- fibrous roots (many small roots together)
Describe eudicots based on theses features: cotyledon, stem, leaf, flowers pars, roots
- two cotyledons
- vascular bundles on a distinct ring in stems
- leaf veins form a net pattern
- flower parts in 4's or 5's
- taproot (one long root many roots from that)
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