Biology 1215-Chapter 4

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  1. plants evolved from a green algal group called the?
  2. Many of the distinctive plant features are terrestrial adaptations. What are the 7 terrestrial adaptions for plants?
    • 1.Need different aerial and subterranean specializations (live in 2 worlds)
    • 2.Egg is fertilized and develops into embryo without leaving the female plant
    • 3.lifecycle alternates between sporophyte (2n) and gametophyte (n)
    • 4.waxy cuticle on outside of leaves
    • 5.stomata
    • 6.vascular tissues
    • 7.plant secondary compounds
  3. where are the localized areas of cell divisions in plants? (where growth occurs)
    apical meristems
  4. what is the term for multicellular diploid and multicellular haploid?
    • multicellular diploid= sporophyte (2n)
    • multicellular haploid=gametophyte (n)
  5. what stage in fertilization do plats have that animals don't have?
    multicellular gametophyte
  6. which stage is dominant in primitive plants? Give an example.
    • gametophyte (n) is dominant
    • ex. mosses
  7. which stage is dominant in "advanced" group of plants? Give an example.
    • sporophyte (2n) is dominant
    • ex. conifers and flowering plants
  8. Where in a plant are haploid spores produced?
    in sporangia
  9. where in plants are haploid gametes produced?
    within gametangia
  10. Swimming sperm are produced in _______________.
  11. ______________ produce and hold one egg each.
  12. How do the sperm find the eggs in plants?
    by chemotaxis
  13. where does they fertilization and embryo development occur in plants?
  14. what is the function of waxy cuticle on outside of leaves?
    lessens water loss
  15. what is the stomata?
    "valved" openings into the leaf interior that allow gasses to enter but minimize water loss because underside of leaf
  16. what are the most primitive plants called?
  17. what are vascular tissues (2) and what are the 2 types?
    • tubes for conducting fluids
    • not found in most primitive plants
    • two types: xylem and phloem
  18. what is the function of the xylem? what is it made out of?
    • carries water and minerals upwards only
    • made out of dead cells
  19. what is the function of the phloem? what is it made of?
    • carries sugar-rich sap up or down
    • made of living cells
  20. what are the functions of plants secondary compounds? what are 2 examples?
    • defend against natural enemies by being poisonous, stinky or distasteful.
    • ex. milkweed and tobacco
  21. what are the 4 major taxa of plants?
    • bryophytes
    • seedless vascular plants
    • Seed plants: Gymnosperms
    • seed plants: Angiosperms
  22. what re 5 major characteristics of bryophytes?
    • most primitive plants
    • avascular (no vascular tissues)
    • no waxy cuticle
    • gametophyte (n) is dominant
    • sperm must swim to egg in archegonium
  23. Give examples of 2 types of bryophytes?
    • mosses
    • liverworts
  24. why do mosses grow in clumps?
    for support and it helps hold water
  25. Mosses contribute to a build up of partially decomposed plant material called?
  26. give 3 characteristics of liverworts?
    • lobed bodies
    • reproduce asexually via gemmae
    • sexual reproduction similar to mosses
  27. seedless vascular plants appeared in the ____________ period. (400mya)
  28. Seedless vascular plants are the first plants with?
    lignified vascular tissues and true roots and leaves
  29. The seedless vascular plants are _____________ dominant.
    sporophyte dominant (but still has independent gametophyte)
  30. what are the 2 types of modern seedless vascular plants? (2 phylum's)
    • club mosses
    • phylum pterophyta which include horsetails and ferns 
  31. what stage is dominant in club mosses and they have microphylls, what are they?
    • sporophyte dominant
    • microphylls = small true leaves
  32. what are 3 characteristics about horsetails? (HINT: stem, habitat, and survival)
    • stems have distinct nodes with air canals and silica
    • most common in moist habitats
    • now only one genus survives
  33. what stage are most common ferns?
  34. fern compound leaves are called?
  35. In ferns, sporangia are in _______ under the leaves.
  36. Seed plants show more adaptations to a terrestrial environment, by what 2 ways?
    • Gametophytes are no longer independent individuals
    • seeds
  37. what happens to female and male gametophytes in seed plants?
    • female gametophyte reduced and held within an ovule in the sporophyte
    • male gametophyte become pollen
  38. what is the function of the pollen?
    to deliver male gametes to the eggs in the ovule
  39. what are seeds?
    baby sporophyte (2n) embryo, food supply and a protective coat (which was the ovule)
  40. what are the 2 main groups of seed plants?
    • gymnosperms
    • angiosperms
  41. what does gymnosperms mean?
    • "naked seed"
    • seeds are not in a fruit
  42. when did gymnosperms become diverse?
    became diverse when climate dried after the carboniferous
  43. what are the 3 modern gymnosperms phyla?
    • ginkos= fan shaped leaves
    • cycads= resemble palms
    • conifers= most diverse (trees with cones)
  44. what are the 3 dry adaptations the conifers made?
    • needle-shaped leaves with thick waxy cuticle
    • smaller surface to volume ratio
    • stomata in pits
  45. what stage are conifers most seen?
  46. where are the sporangia on conifers?
    separate male and female cones
  47. Describe the fertilization of conifers.
    • pollen from male cone is blown by wind to female cone
    • pollen tube grows into ovule
    • fertilization (2n embryo grows)
    • ovule becomes seed (gametophyte becomes food)
    • female cones open and seeds fall away
  48. what are the male and female parts of a flower?
    • male: stamen which includes anther and filament
    • female: carpel which have stigma, style and ovary
  49. what part of the flower produces the pollen  and what is the function of the stigma?
    • anther produces pollen
    • stigma catches pollen
  50. what is the function of the ovary and petal?
    • ovary protects ovules
    • petal attracts pollinators
  51. what is the sepal?
    modified small leaves
  52. grasses are in a group that are ________ pollinated.
  53. how are fruits formed and what is it's function?
    • fruits formed from ripened ovary
    • function is to aid in dispersal
  54. what are the 3 types of fruits? Describe them.
    • simple fruits: develop from single ovary (ex. apple)
    • aggregate fruits: several ovaries from one flower (ex. raspberry)
    • multiple fruits: formed from several separate flowers (ex. pineapple)
  55. what are the 5 innovations of angiosperms?
    • flowers
    • many use animals for transferring pollen
    • fruits
    • more vascular tissues than gymnosperms
    • pollen grain contains 2 haploid nuclei
  56. what are the steps of fertilization for angiosperms?
    • pollen lands on stigma
    • pollen tube grows down ovaries (by chemotoaxis)
    • 2 sperm cells enter an ovule (double fertilization)
    • one fertilizes the egg to form zygote
    • other fuses with 2 haploid cells to produce 3n endosperm
  57. what is the function of endosperm?
    multiplies to form food for the embryo
  58. define cotyledon.
    embryonic first leaf
  59. how does the mutualism between plants and pollinators work?
    • plants give pollen (proteins and nutrients) and nectar to pollinators
    • pollinators transport the pollen
  60. Describe monocots based on theses features: cotyledon, stem, leaf, flowers pars, roots
    • one cotyledon
    • vascular bundles scattered in stem
    • leaf veins form parallel pattern
    • flower petals in 3's and multiples of 3
    • fibrous roots (many small roots together)
  61. Describe eudicots based on theses features: cotyledon, stem, leaf, flowers pars, roots
    • two cotyledons
    • vascular bundles on a distinct ring in stems
    • leaf veins form a net pattern
    • flower parts in 4's or 5's
    • taproot (one long root many roots from that)
Card Set:
Biology 1215-Chapter 4
2014-01-28 06:13:16

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