HTHS Mod 12

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HTHS Mod 12
2014-01-27 21:45:19
HTHS Mod 12`

Spinal cord
Show Answers:

  1. What is the breakdown of the vertebral column; how many vertebrates in cervical, thoracic, etc...
    • 7 cervical
    • 12 thoracic
    • 5 lumbar
    • 5 sacral
    •  3 - 4 coccyx (varies per person)
  2. filum terminale
    • the very end of the spinal cord
    • "terminal thread"
  3. What is comprised in the H or butterfly shape of the spinal cord
    central core is gray matter, which is surrounded by white matter
  4. Recall what gray and white matter are
    • gray matter is neuronal bodies, where info (including reflex) is processed
    • white matter is myelinated axons traveling over a great distance; contains ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) tracts
  5. How is the H-shaped gray matter further subdivided and what does each subdivision do?
    • Posterior (dorsal) horn, which processes sensory information
    • Anterior (ventral) horn, which contains cell bodies of alpha motor neurons (α motor) which controls muscles
  6. Ventral vs dorsal
    • dorsal = posterior
    • ventral = anterior (VVVRrrooom - go forward)
  7. foramen magnum
    • the "large hole" in the bottom of the skull
    • Where the adult spinal cord extends from to about L1 or L2
    • *fact that spinal cord is shorter than vertebral column allows for lumbar puncture
  8. cauda equina
    • "horse's tail"
    • the bundle of nerves at the end of the spinal cord
    • floats in bag of CSF
  9. lumbar puncture
    • also called a "spinal tap"
    • a needle is introduced into the vertebral column, most common location is L3/L4 intervertebral space. 
    • The nerve roots float out of the way and a samle of cerebrospinal fluid can be collected
  10. epidural anesthesia
    • used to relieve pain in lower body
    • anesthetic agent is injected around the nerves as they exit the "dural sleeve"
    • *remember analogy of each nerve in the cauda equina as ur arm, as they pass out from vertebral column, they bring a "sleeve" of dura mater
  11. How does the gray & white matter change through spinal cord
    • size and shape of spinal cord changes from superior to inferior
    • cervical is largest; sacral is smallest
    • Less and less white matter as we descend
    • Therefore, in the sacral cord, gray matter dominates while at cervical levels, there is more white matter
  12. Why is there less and less white matter as the spinal cord descends?
    • this is cause info from the lower body is carried on myelinated axons that "jump on" the spinal cord at the sacral level.
    • As we ascend, the white matter tracts of the spinal cord get bigger and bigger
    • Similarly, myelinated axons leaving brain (motor 4 body) are most numerous at cervical levels. As we descend, more and more leave, forming part of spinal nerves. White matter contributed by descending (motor) tracts gets smaller.
  13. Why are there cervical and lumbar enlargements on the spinal cord?
    Because of the large number of motor neurons needed to control the arms and legs, which leave the spinal cord at the cervical and lumbar levels
  14. Whats the difference in the distribution btwn gray/white matter in the brain and spinal cord?
    • Spinal cord: White matter outside, gray matter inside
    • Brain: white matter inside, gray matter outside
    • Remember: gray = cell bodies, White = axons
  15. What aid is there for determining the anterior vs. posterior sides of a spinal cord in a cross-section view?
    • The arms of the "H" extend all the way to the surface in the posterior (dorsal) horn
    • The anterior (ventral) horn "H"s are covered w a layer of white matter axons
    • *In diagrams, the dorsal part of the H mostly always reaches or comes closest to the outside border. Ventral doesn't come very close
  16. Recall which kind of nerves run through the anterior and posterior "roots"
    • Ventral (anterior) root is motor info
    • Posterior (dorsal) root is sensory info
  17. dorsal root ganglion
    • also called posterior root ganglion
    • contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons which pick up info on body surface and muscles and transmits it via the dorsal root to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord gray matter for processing
    • *remember the ganglion is the bulge in the posterior root of the spinal nerve OUTSIDE the spinal cord
  18. dorsal root
    • the posterior half the the "split" spinal nerve
    • attaches to the dorsal horn of gray matter
    • carries sensory only
  19. ventral horn
    • also called anterior horn
    • anterior section of the H in the spinal cord gray matter
    • where the cell bodies of alpha motor neurons lie
  20. ventral root
    • also called anterior root
    • made up of the myelinated axons of the alpha motor neurons (in the ventral horn)
    • these axons bundle together as they leave the spinal cord and form this root
    • The axons will eventually terminate as the nural part of the neuromuscular junction on skeletal muscle
  21. intermediate/intermediolateral horn
    another name for the lateral horn of the spinal cord
  22. spinal nerve
    • example of a mixed nerve
    • made up of the dorsal and ventral roots joined together
  23. mixed nerve
    nerve that contains both incoming sensory info and outgoing motor info
  24. nerve
    a bundle of sensory and/or motor axons all traveling together IN THE PNS
  25. tracts
    a bundle of axons that travels together in the CNS
  26. ramus
    • pl = rami; means branch
    • connects spinal nerve to sympathetic ganglion 
    • branches off after passing through it's intervertebral foramen
  27. sympathetic ganglion
    • located at the end of each ramus
    • contains the cell bodies of sympathetic neurons which will travel out of the other ramus and then to the organ to be innervated
  28. nucleus vs ganglion
    • Nucleus (nuclei) - a collection of nerve cells inside the CNS
    • ganglion - a collection of neuron cell bodies in PNS
  29. plexus
    • plexi = pl
    • similar to a braided rope:
    • interconnecting nerves that combine together. they join and then split again... to later recombine lateral to spinal cord
  30. 4 spinal nerve plexi
    • cervical plexus
    • brachial plexus
    • lumbar plexus
    • sacral plexus
  31. cervical plexus
    • in the neck
    • receives nerves from C1 through C5
    • gives rise to several important nerves; most important is phrenic nerve
  32. phrenic nerve
    • Nerve which originates from cervical plexus
    • innervates the diaphragm and makes breathing possible
    • contributory nerves are C3, C4 and C5
    • "C3,4,5 keep the diaphragm alive"
  33. brachial plexus
    • receives contributions from nerves C5-C8 and T1
    • *there are 7 cervical vertebrae and 8 cervical nerves
    • major exiting nerves are radial nerve, median nerve and ulnar nerve
    • These nerves fight over the index and ring fingers
  34. naming of nerves
    • C1 - C7, the nerves come out above the vertebra it's named with
    • C8 emerges from below C7, T1 comes out below T1 vertebra, and from there down that's how the nerves are named: by the vertebra above
  35. radial nerve
    • branches from the brachial plexus
    • innervates the thumb and nearby structures
  36. median nerve
    • branch from brachial plexus
    • innervates the middle finger
  37. ulnar nerve
    • branch from brachial plexus
    • innervates pinkie
  38. lumbar plexus
    • associated w lumbar spinal cord (L1 - L5)
    • innervates upper thigh
  39. sacral plexus
    • receives contributions from L4-L5 and S1-S5
    • Larges nerve in body, the sciatic nerve, emerges from sacral plexus
  40. sciatic nerve
    • branches from sacral plexus
    • carries almost every axon innervating muscles in leg, and almost all sensory infomation in leg
  41. sciatica
    painful inflammation or compression of the sciatic nerve
  42. visceral nervous systems
    • another name for autonomic
    • involuntary & reflexive
    • critically important for maintaining homeostasis
    • contracts smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or changes the secretion of glands
    • controlled at levels below consciousness (spinal cord & brainstem)
  43. somatic motor system
    • voluntary motor system
    • contracts skeletal muscle
    • controlled consciously by cerebral cortex
  44. sympathetic nervous system
    • division of ANS
    • "fight or flight" response
    • pupils dilate, mouth goes dry, digesting stops to shunt blood to skeletal muscles, heart beats faster, more oxygen in lungs (bigger lumena in the bronchioles)
  45. 2 major groups of autonomic ganglia
    • sympathetic ganglia (components of sympathetic division of ANS
    • parasympathetic ganglia (components of parasympathetic division of ANS)
  46. sympathetic ganglia
    the site of synapses btwn sympathetic preganglionic and postganglionic neurons
  47. preganglionic neuron
    • the first of two motor neurons in ANS
    • leads from CNS to ganglion
  48. postganglionic neuron
    • the second of two motor neurons in the ANS
    • leads from the ganglion to the organ innervated
  49. preganglionic/postganglionic neurons in sympathetic nervous system
    • cell bodies for "pre" are generally found in thoracic levels of spinal cord in the lateral horn
    • pass through rami & make synaptic contact using acetylcholine, onto postganglionic neurons in sympathetic trunk ganglia

    The "post" neurons then release norepinephrine onto the effector organs
  50. sympathetic chain ganglia
    • also called sympathetic trunk ganglia
    • part of the "wiring" which lies in vertical row on either side of vertebral column
    • extends from base of skull to coccyx
    • contains postganglionic cell bodies for the effector organs of the thorax and abdomen
    • From T1 to L2
  51. Lateral Horn
    • bulge in H area of spinal cord, in btwn the dorsal and ventral horns, from T1 to L2, 
    • contains the sympathetic preganglionic neuron cell bodies
    • also called intermediate or intermediolateral horn
  52. superior cervical ganglion
    • sympathetic trunk ganglia in the neck for head
    • the location of the postganglionic neuron for the effector organs of the head (eye, salivary glands)
    • the postganglionic axon makes it's way along blood vessels of the head to finally terminate effector organs of head (eye, salivary glands)
  53. epinephrine
    • adrenaline
    • made by adrenal glands
  54. Positive feedback loop of sympathetic nervous system
    • adrenal glands are stimulated to make more epinephrine, which circulated through bloodstream to increase "fight or flight."
    • *sympathetic nervous system is activated AS A UNIT. All effector organs are "turned on" at the same time
  55. Parasympathetic nervous system
    • "rest and digest" system - division of ANS
    • Not activated all at once under normal circumstance 
    • includes active digestion, sexual arousal, heart & lungs slow, pupils constrict
    • wired different than sympathetic n. system & uses different neurotransmitters
    • *only time this system is activated all at once is if person is exposed to nerve agent or insecticide intoxication
  56. Location of parasympathetic N. system cell bodies for all organs except in pelvic region
    • found in 4 cranial nerve nuclei in brainstem: 3, 7, 9 and 10
    • axons come out and innervate ganglia which are found near those organs they innervate
    • EXCEPTION: Vagus nerve (CN X) where cell bodies are in brain stem and axons go out to intramural ganglia
  57. what neurotransmitter is used in parasympathetic nervous system
    preganglionic cells release acetylcholine onto postganglionic cells, which in turn release acetylcholine onto the effector organ
  58. Location of parasympathetic preganglionic cell bodies for pelvic organs
    • found in sacral spinal cord, "pelvic splanchnic nerves"
    • Axons go directly out to intramural ganglia which is found in walls of effector organs
    • includes colon, bladder, genital erection, and uterine contraction
    • also uses acetylcholine
  59. location of parasympathetic postganglionic neuron cell body for effector organs on the face
    • includes eyes and salivary glands
    • found in one of the ganglia associated with cranial nerves
    • (ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, optic nerves)
  60. Location of parasympathetic preganglionic/postganglionic neuron for other effector organs, particularly those of thorax and abdomen
    • preganglionic is found in vagus nucleus inside brainstem
    • their axons form the Vagus nerve (CN X)
    • Postganglionic neuron is short & found in an intramural ganglion
  61. intramural ganglion
    collection of cell bodies found within the wall of a structure
  62. Vagus nerve
    • CN X
    • The vagus nerve (Latin, “wandering”) travels widely over the neck, thorax and abdomen, innervating a wide variety of internal organs.
    • carries some taste information from taste buds in the soft palate and uvula (the “hangy thing” at the back of your throat)
    • Mostly, however, the vagus carries autonomic parasympathetic information to the internal organs.
  63. Control of micturation
    (urination) - controlled by the parasympathetic n. system
  64. *recap: Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic neurons
    • Parasympathetic: Preganglionic neurons found in either brainstem or S2-S4 regions. Have long preganglionic axons which innervate postganglionic neurons w short axons that innervate structure in question
    • Sympathetic: Preganglionic neurons found T1 - L2, have short preganglionic axons that lead to postganglionic neurons in sympathetic chain ganglia
  65. Effectors of the visceral motor system
    • (also called Autonomic motor system)
    • contracts smooth muscle or cardiac muscle, OR changes the secretion of glands
  66. effectors of somatic nervous system
    skeletal muscle
  67. What neurotransmitter receptors on effector organs are used in the 2 divisions of ANS
    • Sympathetic division acts through a variety of norepinephrine receptors 
    • Parasympathetic division acts through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on effector organs
  68. Little more detail on Sympathetic noradrenaline receptors
    • Several "sub-flavors": α1, α2, β1, β2, β3 noradrenaline receptors
    • So when you hear about "beta-blockers",  referring to drugs that block one of the beta categories of the sympathetic noradrenaline receptors
  69. What receptors are used in the somatic nervous system
    nicotinic acetylcholine receptors found on skeletal muscle cells at the neuromuscular junction
  70. Describe control of ANS
    • involuntary
    • reflexive = based on reflexes (may have voluntary override)
    • spinal cord and brainstem nuclei = unconscious
  71. describe control of somatic nervous system
    • voluntary
    • planned
    • cerebral cortex = conscious
  72. telencephalon
    includes the cerebral cortex and basal nuclei
  73. cerebral cortex
    • part of telencephalon
    • also called cerebrum
    • "crinkly outside" of brain; the outside part of the cerebrum
    • where we receive and send conscious motor info
    • surrounds diencephalon and brainstem
    • Has 5 lobes, many regions
    • *(cortex of any structure is OUTSIDE of it)
  74. gyri
    • landmark "bumps" on the surface of cerebral cortex
    • can be used to locate different brain regions, each w a different function
  75. sulci
    • Landmark "grooves" on the surface cerebral cortex
    • can be used to locate different brain regions, each w different regions
  76. basal nuclei
    • division of telencephalon
    • also called basal ganglia
    • Made up by 3 structures: the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
    • essential in control of movement, and regulation of mood @ complex behaviors
    • receives dopamine from substantia nigra of midbrain.
  77. Diencephalon
    Divided into epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus
  78. epithalamus
    • smallest division of diencephalon 
    • contains Pineal gland
  79. pineal gland
    pea-sized structure in the epithalamus that helps regulate daily rhythms of the body
  80. Thalamus
    • division of diencephalon, size and shape of 2 eggs
    • all sensory and motor info (except for smell) is relayed through thalamus
  81. hypothalamus
    • division of diencephalon
    • homeostatic control center for all body functions
    • controls pituitary gland
    • Controls body temp, sexual function, eating, drinking, emotional state...
    • positioned next to optic nerve, so receives info about light n dark which it uses to regulate sleep/wake cycles in cooperation w reticular formation
  82. circadian rhythms
    • activity levels related to time of day (day/night cycle)
    • controlled by hypothalamus
  83. pituitary gland
    • controlled by hypothalamus
    • "master gland" of endocrine system
  84. cerebellum
    • contains programs motor movements; allow us to move w/o thinking about it
    • closely associated w pons
    • contains about half the cells in the ENS (granule cells), also has purkinje cells
  85. divisions of the brainstem
    • from superior to inferior: midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
    • As brainstem tapers and passes through foramen magnum, changes it's name to spinal cord
  86. midbrain
    • one division of brainstem
    • smallest part of brain stem
    • contains oculomotor nucleus, substantia nigra and crus cerebri
    • controls eye movements & pupil size
  87. Pons
    • division of brainstem
    • "bridge" btwn two halves of cerebellum; closely associated w cerebellum
  88. medulla oblongata
    • division of brainstem
    • controls heartbeat, respiration, vomiting center, pain and temp info for face, and taste info, controls tongue
    • essential for life
  89. oculomotor nucleus/ oculomotor nerve
    • in midbrain
    • contains many of the neurons which control eye movement, including size of pupil
  90. substantia nigra
    • "black substance"
    • found in midbrain
    • important in movement
    • structure which degenerates causing Parkinson disease
  91. crus cerebri
    • found in midbrain
    • contains fibers which are going from the motor part of cerebral cortex down to spinal cord
  92. spinal cord
    • reflexes
    • sensory tracts bring info up from body surface and motor tracts bring info down to body muscles
  93. degenerative diseases of the basal nuclei
    • Parkinson disease: happens then the substantia nigra of midbrain dies and no longer sends dopamine to basal nuclei. causes movement disorder. About 1/2 parkinson pts also suffer from mental disorders
    • Huntington disease, also results in mental disorders
  94. OCD pts show what
    abnormalities in caudate nucleus (part of basal nuclei)
  95. Insula
    • what some authors call a "fifth" lobe of the brain which is folded inside; btwn frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe
    • only visible when we cut the lateral surface of the brain away
    • like "insula-tion"
  96. fissures
    • deep grooves on the cerebral cortex
    • Together with sulci, form the borders btwn lobes
  97. central sulcus
    the groove which divides the frontal lobe and parietal lobe
  98. precentral gyrus
    • one of two parallel, identical-looking gyri on either side of the central sulcus
    • on the frontal-lobe side
    • involved in motor system
  99. postcentral gyrus
    • one of two parallel, identical-looking gyri on either side of the central sulcus
    • on the parietal lobe side
    • involved with somatosensory system
  100. somatosensory system
    the system involved in sensation from the face and body surface
  101. primary somatosensory cortex
    • also called postcentral gyrus
    • all info from body surface comes here to be processed to conscious awareness
  102. Sylvian fissure
    • also called lateral sulcus or lateral fissure
    • separates the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe
  103. parieto-occipital sulcus
    • separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe
    • only visible on a midsagittal surface
  104. medial longitudinal fissure
    separates the brain into two hemispheres, L & R
  105. transverse fissure
    separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
  106. Brodmann's Areas
    • numbered regions of cortex
    • named by a German scientist, Korbinian Brodmann
    • who started slicing a brain and looking at the sections (from top to bottom) through a microscope
    • structural differences in pieces were numbered
  107. Areas 3, 1 and 2
    • is area of postcentral gyrus or primary somatosensory cortex
    • in the parietal Lobe
    • receiving info about face and body surface
    • Taste is here and in nearby area 43
    • *primary somatosensory cortex is where all the info from body sensory comes here to be processed to conscious awareness
  108. Area 4
    • in Frontal Lobe
    • precentral gyrus or primary motor cortex
    • sending axons to the α motor neurons of spinal cord (executing movement)
    • *motor info coming out of cerebral cortex, when we want to make a conscious movement, originates here
  109. Areas 44 and 45
    • Also called Broca's area, in frontal lobe
    • In most people, Broca's area on the left side is responsible for the production of speech (movements of the throat and tongue)
  110. Areas 17, 18, and 19
    • in occipital lobe
    • together is visual cortex (sensory, sight)
    • *Area 17 also called primary visual cortex or striate cortex

    *Areas 18 & 19: visual association areas
  111. Area 43
    • In parietal Lobe
    • location of taste is found near here (primary somatosensory cortex)
  112. Area 6
    • supplementary motor area
    • in frontal lobe
    • involves planning or imagining movement
  113. Area 8
    • frontal eye fields (eye movements
    • in frontal lobe
  114. Areas 41 and 42
    • Primary auditory cortex
    • sensory, hearing
    • in temporal lobe
  115. Area 22 & 22p
    • posterior part of Area 22
    • Called Wernicke's area
    • responsible for the understanding of speech sounds
    • *also includes parts of Area 39 & 40
  116. meninges
    • singular: meninx
    • the collective term for the three-layered membrane which covers and protects the brain
    • comprised of the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
  117. dura mater
    • "tough mother"
    • a leathery covering, the outer most layer of the meninges
  118. arachnoid mater
    • "spiderweb mother"
    • resembles a wet spider web and is normally filled with CSF
    • is the middle layer of meninges
  119. pia mater
    • "delicate mother"
    • the inner-most layer of meninges
    • like a coating of pain on surface of brain which cannont be separated from parenchyma of brain
  120. parenchyma
    the substance of the brain
  121. epidural space
    space btwn the skull and dura
  122. subdural region
    area btwn the dura and arachnoid layers of meninges
  123. subarachnoid space
    • area btwn the arachnoid and the pial surface of brain
    • filled w CSF
  124. Pts who suffer bleeding in brain ...
    • may have blood:
    • collecting in the epidural space
    • tearing apart of the subdural region
    • of filling the subarachnoid space
  125. cerebrospinal fluid
    • CSF
    • a filtrate of blood plasma that cushions and supports the brain, as well as supplying a favorable ionic environment for neurons
    • fills ventricles and subarachnoid space
    • almost identical to plasma, slightly lower in glucose & amino acids than plasma & much lower in protein
    • circulates and is turned over about 4x a day. Cause of this lumbar puncture may detect bleeding that originated (ex) in subarachnoid space around frontal cortex
  126. ventricles
    • series of hollow spaces in brain
    • should be a "first" and "second" but there isn't.
    • eitherway, there is 4
  127. lateral ventricles
    • shaped like the letter C w a tail
    • located beneath white matter of cerebrum
    • *should be named 1st and 2nd ventricle, but isnt
  128. third ventricle
    is a slit-like space btwn the two eggs of the thalamus
  129. fourth ventricle
    btwn the brainstem and cerebellum
  130. apertures
    connects the ventricles to each other
  131. interventricular foramina
    connects the lateral ventricles and third ventricle
  132. cerebral aqueduct
    joins the third and fourth ventricles
  133. how does the 4th ventricle communicate w the subarachnoid space surrounding brain & spinal cord
    • via three apertures: 
    • two lateral apertures and a single median aperture
  134. choroid plexus
    • a specialized tissue that is found mainly in the lateral ventricles and fourth ventricle (which contains ependymal cells)
    • makes CSF
  135. ependymal cells
    a type of glial cell which filters the blood in the choroid plexus, makes CSF
  136. arachnoid villi
    • a collection of structures within the "superior sagittal sinus" of the skull
    • superior = top, sagittal = midline, sinus = fluid filled space
    • So there is a sinus filled w venous blood, Walls made of dura mater.
    • Arachnoid villi project out into sinus where venous blood can reabsorb CSF
  137. Summary of CSF production, circulation and resorption
    • Production: choroid plexus
    • Circulation:
    • Lateral ventricles (cortex and basal nuclei)
    • 3rd ventricle (thalamus)
    • 4th ventricle: cerebellum n pons
    • subarachnoid space of spinal cord/ brain
    • Resorption: arachnoid villi - dumped back into venous circulation
  138. hydrocephalus
    • "water brain"
    • occurs when ventricles or apertures in an adult become occluded
    • can also result from overproduction of CSF or from slow absorption of CSF
    • when it backs up, puts pressure on the brain
    • is life threatening condition
  139. lumbar cistern
    • the subarachnoid space which contains the free-flowing nerve roots of the cauda equina at the caudal end of the spinal cord
    • area in which CSF can be sampled ("spinal tap" or lumbar puncture)
  140. BBB
    • blood-brain barrier
    • a collaboration btwn  endothelial cells lining of capillaries and the end-feet of astrocytes
    • keeps most substances in bloodstream from entering brain
    • Nice to have, but one problem is it keeps drugs (particularly antibiotics) out. Therefore, important to design drugs for the brain to be able to penetrate the BBB
  141. What is able to enter the brain, and how?
    • Glucose, some amino acids, and water through special pumps
    • lipid-soluble molecules can pass by simple diffusion
    • waste products are pumped into the blood
    • Everything else stays out, unless brain is diseased
  142. area postrema
    • one area of the medulla oblongata which has no BBB
    • gives it access to any toxins or irritants which might be circulating in the blood. If it detects any, it triggers emesis (vomiting) through the vagus nerve
    • also called the "vomiting center"
  143. reticular formation
    • "little net", "hair-net" 
    • a loosely organized groups of cells which forms the central core of the brainstem
    • extends through the medulla & pons 
    • is the ALARM CLOCK of the brain
    • *the group of neurons appear net-like in some staining methods.
  144. What does the reticular formation do?
    • It's what wakes you up if a sabre-toothed tiger nibbles ur toe.
    • *If damaged, as in coma, pts can't be aroused and seem to always be in sleep-like state
    • takes in info from many sensory systems, processes, then sends info over wide area of cerebral cortex to keep all areas of brain active
  145. homunculus
    • a map of the body surface as it corresponds to the cortex: the precentral gyrus (motor) and postcentral gyrus (sensory)
    • Leg, foot n toes along medial aspect of both gyrus
    • Face is along lateral surface of both gyrus
    • sensory contains genitals, motor does not
  146. What does the left hemisphere of the brain do?
    • receives somatic sensory signals from and controls muscles on right side of body
    • Reasoning
    • numerical and scientific skills
    • ability to use and understand sign language
    • spoken and written language
  147. What does the right hemisphere of the brain do?
    • receives somatic sensory signals from and controls muscles on left side of body
    • musical and artistic awareness
    • space and pattern perception
    • recognition of faces and emotional content of facial expressions
    • generating emotional content of language
    • generating mental images to compare spatial relationships
    • identifying and discriminating among odors
  148. corpus callosum
    • think "colossus" at Lagoon 
    • a major bundle of axons which connect corresponding areas of the two halves of the brain symmetrically
    • Ex: links the L motor cortex and R motor cortex together
  149. left-sided neglect
    • a weird phenomenon in pts what have a stoke in the right parietal lobe
    • pts are only aware of the right half of the world, including right have of body. 
    • They do not recognize their left side as belonging to them
  150. limbic system
    • also called the limbic lobe - emotional brain
    • plays a key role in emotional behavior
    • forms a border or fringe that encircles the brainstem and thalamus
  151. The original circuit of the limbic system, as proposed by Papez
    • 5 structures:
    • hippocampus
    • mammillary bodies
    • anterior nucleus of the thalamus
    • cingulate gyrus
    • parahippocampal gyrus
    • *said to be connected in a circular pathway
    • **Hippo Mammas Aint Coming Politely"
  152. fornix
    connects the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies
  153. mammillothalamic tract
    connects the mammillary bodies to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus
  154. Olfactory bulb
    • important part of emotion (try smelling burning flesh, burning food, feces, or food w/o emotional response)
    • processes smell
  155. hippocampus
    involved in learning and memory
  156. 2 types of memory
    declarative (explicit) and nondeclarative (implicit)
  157. consolidation (of memory)
    the process of "labeling" and "filing" memories & moving memories from short-term "scratchpad" memory to more permanent form
  158. Declarative memory
    • also called explicit memory
    • form of memory which involves remembering facts, dates, and events 
    • ex: where ur car keys are, ur wedding anniversary, were u were proposed to, etc.)
    • these are consolidated in the hippocampus and diencephalon
  159. non-declarative memory
    • also called implicit memory
    • Involves other forms of memories:
    • skills & habits
    • priming
    • emotional responses
    • skeletal musculature
    • nonassociative learning
  160. straitum
    a collective term for the caudate and putamen, which are the parts of the basal nuclei which are together
  161. Where are skills and habits consolidated & stored
    in the striatum, motor cortex and cerebellum
  162. priming
    • the phenomenon in which mental practice (such as shooting baskets in your head or practicing a piano piece in ur head) helps actual performance
    • takes place in the cortex, especially the premotor cortex 
  163. classical conditioning
    basic associative learning of emotional responses and "muscle memory"
  164. Where is memories of emotional responses stored
    The fear you feel as you drive down a street where you had a traffic accident the year before is stored in the amygdala
  165. What is muscle memory and where is it stored
    • Muscle memory is the learning of an activity through practice until it is done without thought
    • stored in the cerebellum
    • Ex: the pattern of your PIN at the ATM
  166. What is nonassociative learning?
    • an improvement in the reflex pathways
    • *like tapping under the patella over and over, it will kick out faster and faster
  167. spinal nerves
    • are segmental = they cover a specific region of skin and/or muscle
    • always mixed (sensory + motor)
  168. cranial nerves
    12 nerves which innervate head-only muscle groups, head-only sensations, and head-only autonomic functions along with all the "regular-stuff" that the head needs
  169. Mnemonic to remember names of nerves
    On Old Olympus' Towering Top, A Fine Virginian Gentleman Viewed A Hawk
  170. Mnemonic to remember which cranial nerves are sensory, motor, or both
    Six Sailors Made Merry, But My Brother Said Bad Business My Man
  171. Cranial Nerve I
    Olfactory - carries olfactory info from the olfactory epithelium inside the nasal sinuses to the brain
  172. Cranial Nerve II
    Optic Nerve - carries optic info from the retina lining the inside of the eye to the brain
  173. Cranial Nerve III
    • Oculomotor - innervates 4 of the six eye muscles:
    • medial rectus
    • superior rectus
    • inferior rectus
    • inferior oblique muscles
    • *also innervates the iris muscles
  174. Recall names the muscles of the eye that "twist" the eye
    • superior oblique (which passes through the trochlea = bony loop in the superior part of orbit)
    • inferior oblique
    • oblique = "slanting" or twisting
  175. Cranial Nerve IV
    • Trochlear nerve 
    • innervates the superior oblique muscle (which passes through the trochlea)
    • can remember SO4 for superior oblique is nerve 4
  176. Cranial Nerve V
    • Trigeminal nerve
    • TRI = 3 divisions:
    • ophthalmic or v1 - eye n forehead
    • maxillary or v2 - check n maxilla
    • mandibular or v3 - mandible
    • *management of this nerve is critical part of dental practice
    • *both Motor and sensory
  177. Sensory of Cranial Nerve V
    has function of proprioception for jaw muscles 

    Keeps us from crushing teeth by biting too hard on nut or seed; helps jaw muscles relax son as force on teeth releases
  178. Motor of Cranial Nerve V
    • for muscles of Mastication
    • chewing muscles
  179. Cranial Nerve VI
    • abducens nerve
    • abducts the eye (carries it away from midline)
    • also innervates the lateral rectus
  180. Cranial Nerve VII
    • Facial Nerve
    • primarily motor for the muscles of facial expression; some taste sensation and salivary glands
    • Innervates the lacrimal glands, submandibular and sublingual glands (Which produces saliva)

  181. Sensory function of cranial nerve VII
    • carry taste info from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
    • this info joins w other taste fibers to form the chorda tympani
  182. Cranial Nerve VIII
    • Vestibulocochlear nerve - has 2 divisions
    • cochlear branch vestibular branch
    • (on gross brain, divisions can be easily seen because it looks like a figure 8 in cross-section)
  183. cochlear branch of CN VIII
    carries info from spiral-shaped cochlea (which is responsible for taking sound waves and coding the info in a form nervous system can use)
  184. vestibular branch of CN VIII
    • carries info from semicircular canals and vestibule
    • hearing and balance
  185. recall semicircular canals & vestiblue
    • semicircular canals cod for head rotation in each of 3 major planes
    • vestibule (saccule & utricle) codes for head movement
  186. otolith organs
    • the saccule and utricle, which make up the vestibule
    • the two "bumps" btwn the cochlea and semicircular canals
  187. Cranial Nerve IX
    • glossopharyngeal nerve
    • innervates posterior 1/3 of tongue and also the parotid gland
    • carries information from the carotid body (sensory organ in carotid artery that senses blood pressure)
  188. Cranial Nerve XI
    • accessory nerve (also called spinal accessory nerve)
    • pure motor for trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
    • *recall trapezius is the big muscle along the back of neck and shoulders
    • "IDK... let me think about it"
  189. Cranial Nerve XII
    • Hypoglossal Nerve
    • purely motor, does 1 thing: sticks out the tongue
    • **odd thing is that tongue is PULLED forward out of mouth, since muscles can only pull and not push