Oxygenation and Basic Cardiac Monitoring (A)

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Oxygenation and Basic Cardiac Monitoring (A)
2014-01-25 16:38:31
Oxygenation Basic Cardiac Monitoring
Oxygenation and Basic Cardiac Monitoring (A)
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  1. Hypoventilation leads to
    Respiratory acidosis
  2. Hyperventilation leads to
    Respiratory alkalosis
  3. To compensate for metabolic alkalosis the lungs
    hypoventilate to decrease CO2
  4. To compensate for metabolic acidosis, the lungs
    Hyperventilate to conserve CO2: Kussmaul respirations
  5. Causes of metabolic acidosis:
    Ketoacidosis, shock, diarrhea, kidney disease
  6. Causes of metabolic alkalosis:
    Vomiting, gastric suction
  7. Hyperkalemia is seen in patients with
    Renal failure (and therefore metabolic acidosis)
  8. Tx for hyperkalemia
    Dialysis, OR insulin
  9. Symptoms of metabolic alkalosis:
    hypertonic muscles, cramping, hypoventilation
  10. Symptoms of resp acidosis:
    hypotension and warm/flushed skin
  11. Most common acid/base imbalance
    Resp acidosis
  12. 2nd most common acid/base imbalance
    Metabolic acidosis (esp r/t DKA or sepsis)
  13. TV is the:
    Tidal volume--the vol of gas delivered to pt during each ventilation (6-10ml/kg)
  14. FiO2 is the:
    Fraction of inspired O2. A percentage.
  15. Too much residual (nutritonal therapy):
    150-200mL OR 2/3 of the hourly feeding rate
  16. CMV stands for
    Controlled Mandatory ventilation
  17. CMV mostly used for pts who are
    unconscious or spetic
  18. CMV details:
    Delivers preset TV at preset rate
  19. Can pt take spontaneous breaths on CMV?
  20. A/c stands for:
  21. A/C mostly used to help
    prevent resp muscle atropy
  22. Can pt take spontaneous breaths on A/C?
    Yes, but vent delivers preset TV
  23. IMV stands for
    Intermittent madatory ventilation
  24. SIMV stands for
    synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation
  25. Pts on CMV are probably also prescribed
    paralytics and/or sedatives. Feel need to breathe, but cannot.
  26. IMV description:
    Pt gets preset number of breaths, AND CAN TAKE THEIR OWN BREATHS
  27. SIMV description:
    Pt gets preset # of breaths, and can take own, but vent waits for exhalation before giving new breath
  28. Benifits of SIMV
    Good for weaning, allows resp muscles to be used.
  29. Most common vent setting (unless pt really really messed up)
  30. What does PEEP do?
    Holds alveoli open after expiration. A little left over in lungs to allow for longer gas exchange.