A&P I Cell Biology

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Author:
Morgan_001
ID:
258365
Filename:
A&P I Cell Biology
Updated:
2014-01-25 18:16:06
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cell biology
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cell biology for a&p
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  1. cytology
    the study of cells
  2. 2 major classifications of cells
    • sex cells- gametes
    • somatic cells- body
  3. human cells have 3 main components
    • 1) plasma membrane 
    • 2) cytoplasm 
    • 3) nucleus
  4. plasma membrane
    separates interior fluids from exterior fluids
  5. cytoplasm
    intracellular fluid
  6. nucleus
    controls cellular activities and stores genetic information
  7. the plasma membrane contains
    • lipids 
    • proteins 
    • carbohydrates
  8. function of plasma membrane
    • physical isolation
    • regulate exchange with environment 
    • sensitivity to environment 
    • structural support
  9. lipids
    organic compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  10. what are the 2 positions that proteins can be classified by?
    • integral
    • peripheral
  11. integral
    outside of the membrane
  12. peripheral
    inside the membrane
  13. functions of the protein
    anchoring, recognition, enzymes, receptor, carrier, channel
  14. proteins make up about how much of the lipid?
    half
  15. glyco
    carbohydrate
  16. functions of the membrane
    • lubrication and protection
    • anchoring and locomotion
    • specificity in binding 
    • recognition
  17. 3 Cell Junctions
    • Tight junctions 
    • desmosomes
    • gap junctions
  18. tight junctions
    close and waterproof; keeps your skin from leaking and dehydration
  19. desmosomes
    not a tight; keeps your skin mobile but not sliding around
  20. gap junctions
    connects membranes (heart)
  21. passive transport
    diffusion and osmosis
  22. can freely diffuse IF:
    • lipids are soluble 
    • small enough 
    • assisted by carrier
  23. diffusion
    random movement based on their kinetic activity
  24. osmosis
    • diffusion based on water 
    • simple 
    • facilitated
  25. filtration
    when force is required
  26. ________ is the goal
    isotonic
  27. tonicity
    movement of water into/out of cells
  28. isotonic
    • equal concentrations 
    • like a normal blood cell
  29. hypertonic
    • higher concentration of solutes
    • like flubber
  30. hypotonic
    • more dilute 
    • like a ball
  31. hydrostatic pressure
    water pressure
  32. osmotic pressure
    distribution of water
  33. active transport
    • spends energy
    • ATP
  34. 2 types of active transport
    • primary vs. secondary
    • vesicular
  35. primary
    energy is spent to pump a substance across a membrane
  36. secondary
    2nd substance is pumped across when primary happens
  37. cotransport
    same direction
  38. counter transport
    opposite direction
  39. vesicular transport
    spends energy
  40. endocytosis
    transport processes that eject substances from the cell interior into the extracellular fluid
  41. 3 types of endocytosis
    • 1) phagocytosis 
    • 2) pinocytosis 
    • 3) receptor mediated endocytosis
  42. phagocytosis
    physical substance; engulfs solid material
  43. pinocytosis
    liquid; infolding membrane that surrounds fluid
  44. receptor mediated endocytosis
    specific concentrated material
  45. vesicular
    the pinching of the membrane to form a vesicle
  46. transmembrane potential
    inside of plasma membrane has slight negative charge
  47. slight negative charge because...
    • unequal distribution of ions 
    • potential difference
  48. potential difference
    when positive and negative charges are held apart
  49. resting potential
    • transmembrane potential of undisturbed cell
    • each cell has one
  50. cytoplasm includes...
    • cytosol
    • inclusions
  51. cytosol
    • fluid 
    • proteins, salts, sugars, and other solutes
  52. inclusions
    solid masses clumped together

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