Biol 251 Unit 1

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Biol 251 Unit 1
2014-02-12 22:09:22
Microbiology biol 251 csn

Lecture biol 251 csn Dr. N
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  1. who invented the lenses that later was used to make microscope?
    Zecharia Jensen
  2. Why microbiology is important in food products?
    Microbes are used in the production of many food items or to make them better.
  3. What roll microbiology plays in fuel industry
    Bio fuel produced from some type of microbe as a substitute to oil
  4. What is the roll of microbiology in the personal care industry
    Some kind of microbes are used to produce products such as tooth paste, laundry detergents, etc
  5. Bio-remediation
    Use of bacteria to clean the environment (oil or chemical spills)
  6. How microbes are used to make medicine?
    • 1. Antibiotic: A chemical used to treat bacterial infectio
    • 2. Vaccine: Made of lab grown microbes its purpose is to prevent diseases in human and animals.
    • 3. special treatment: for some type of cancers, virus used to kill some type of bacteria (in bacterial infection), and gene correction treatment.
  7. What roll do microbes play in nutrient cycling? Why it is important?
    Microbes take roll in discomposing (break down) of dead organism such as humans and animals into chemicals and nutrients.

    Importance 1. Plants, human, and animal use these nutrients. 2. Without microbes dead bodies would have just liter the planet.
  8. What roll do microbes play in photosynthesis? Why it is important?
    Most photosynthesis created by microbes in the ocean (not plants).

    It is important because its byproduct is oxygen that required by any life on earth.
  9. Name the 3 main importance of microbiology
    • 1. All life on earth require microbes
    • 2. Microbes are used to make many products
    • 3.Microbes can make humans/animals healthy or sick
  10. who "invented" hand washing as a way to prevent spread of diseases (in hospitals)?
  11. developed a series of steps linking microbes to specific disease
    Robert Koch
  12. Who was the firs to sterilize instruments between patients?
    Joseph Lister
  13. Single cell or organism with no membrane-bound organelles
  14. The ability to see and differentiate between things
  15. Who was the person that disproved spontaneous generation for microorganism?
    Louis Pasteur
  16. Who was the firs to observe microbes?
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoke
  17. Who was the person that disproved spontaneous generation for macroorganism
    Francesco Redi
  18. Single or multi-celled that has membrane-bound organelles
  19. Chemicals that kill bacteria and are made by microbes
  20. General type of microbes that not made of cells
  21. Who was the firs to see cells, used microscope to look at plants and animals
    Robert Hooke
  22. What states that microbes can make us sick?
    Germ Theory of Disease
  23. How e coli can be beneficial for us?
    • There are 700 types of e coli some of them can make us very sick others can be very good for us.
    • E coli making vitamin K a substance in blood clotting cascade.
  24. How microbes can cause diseases in humans/animals?
    Short term disease: Colds, flu, and skin infections can be treated with medicine.

    Long term disease: aids and some types of cancers may effect and shorten our lives.

    Potential links: Recent researches link microbe infection in early age to bipolar and schizophrenia in adult, microbe infection to Alzheimer, and srep through to obsessive compulsive disorder
  25. How microbes can keep humans/animals healthy?
    Digestion: In our digestion tract there are tons of microbes that break down food, help process nutrients, help produce other nutrients.

    Preventing invasion:
    Microbes that cover our skin and intestine are preventing pathogens from invading our body.
  26. The idea that modern life form arose from non-living materials
    Spontaneous Generation
  27. Define Cell Theory
    • Cell give rise to like cell.
    • (reproduction makes similar cell/organism type)
  28. Define Biogenesis
    • Life arises from life
    • (living organism don't form from non-living matter)
  29. What are the three general type of microbes?
    Prokaryotes: (single cell) bacteria and archea

    Eukaryotes: (single/multi cell) algae, fungi, protozoa, and helminthes

    Acellular: (not made of cell) viruses and prions
  30. What are the benefits of a lens system?
    1) Increase differentiation (ability to tell things apart)

    2) increase visibility
  31. Definition of Microbiology
    The study of things that we cannot see without some sort of lens system.
  32. Hydrogen bond
    Hydrogen atom attach it self to oxygen or nitrogen
  33. Covalent bond
    share of electron
  34. Ionic bond
    Transfer of electron
  35. Define molecules
    Two or more atoms joint together.
  36. Atom structure
    Nucleus: protons (positive charge) and neutrons

    • Electron shells: Electrons (negative charge)
    • Atoms are more stable with full shells.
  37. How the notice that microbes can make us sick changed food handling?
    Industrial developments of refrigeration (slows down growth of microbes in foods) and pasteurization (heated liquid food to kill microbes)
  38. Why it's important to know that microbes cause diseases?
    Because we can do something about it (make medicine such as vaccines and antibiotics)
  39. Know the steps of Koch's postulates
    • 1. Disease agent must be present in every case of disease.
    • 2. The agent must be isolated from the animal/culture.
    • 3. The agent must cause the same disease in a healthy animal.
    • 4.The agent must be re-isolated and matched to the original
  40. Why atom bond is important?
    • 1. It hold things together as molecules (create cells/organism)
    • 2. It stores energy (require by organism to make ATP)
  41. What is basic structure of a molecule?
    Core shape (in side)
  42. How organism make ATP?
    • By breaking down molecules (glucose for example)
    • Every time that molecule's atomic bond is broken, it release some energy that is used by the organism.
  43. Antibiotics structure
    Many classes each one has a basic structure (β lactam ring) and a different functional group (outside)
  44. What are the additional components of a molecule?
    Factional groups: Attached to the core of the molecule on the outside. they have the ability to work or react in a cell.
  45. What are the common chemical reactions?
    Synthesis, decomposition, and exchange
  46. Why decomposition and exchange are important?
    • 1. release energy as molecules break down
    • 2. in microbiology we can find chemical (medicine) that prevent decomposition and that will block microbes access to energy source.
  47. Define inorganic molecule
    Do not have carbon and hydrogen together (may have either carbon or hydrogen in it but never both)

    Responsible for cellularactivity
  48. Define organic molecules
    Any molecule that has both hydrogen and carbon in it.

    Responsible for the structure of the cell
  49. How is synthesis important?
    Building bigger and more complex structures (cells for example) from smaller more simple structure (small molecules)
  50. The type of staining with one stain
    Simple stain
  51. Molecules that made of at least hydrogen & carbon ( and usually oxygen)
    Organic molecule
  52. Energy molecule of cells
  53. Two or more atoms joined together with a bond
  54. Anything with PH above 8
  55. A type of media that allow few types of microbes can grow on
  56. A solution with fewer solutes than inside the cell
  57. A culture that made up with only one type of microbe
    pure culture
  58. A solution with higher number of solutes than in the cell
  59. Serves as a genetic material for organism
    Nucleic acid
  60. A culture that made up of more than one type of microbes
    Mixed culture
  61. Made of amino acids bonded together
  62. Large class of molecules, use for energy storage, structure, and signaling
  63. The outer group of molecules that give it certain properties/determine how it reacts in a living organism
    Functional group
  64. Reaction that put atoms/molecules together
  65. A type of media that lots of microbes can grow on
    General nedia
  66. Molecules that lack of carbon/hydrogen combination
  67. Solution with the same amount of solutes as inside the cell
  68. The type of staining used to tell the difference between two type of microbes
    Differential stain
  69. The process of putting nucleotides together on order to look at genetic material of organism
    DNA/RNA Sequencing
  70. Reactions that take large molecules apart
  71. Reaction that move energy (electron) from one molecule to another
    Exchange reaction
  72. The six elements that absolutely require for every living organism
    • SPONCH
    • Sulfur, Phosphate, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, and Hydrogen
  73. Something used to grow a microbe in a lab
  74. Anything with pH below 6
  75. Define macromolecule
    A large molecule that made of the SPONCH elements
  76. Which are the four classes of macromolecules that comprise ant living organism? Which type of molecule is useful for living organism beside these molecules?
    • 1.Carbohydrates (CHO)
    • 2. Lipids
    • 3. Proteins
    • 4. Nucleic acids.
    • Energy molecule (ATP)
  77. How macromolecules form?
    • Subunits (smaller molecules) needed to be put together in different arrangement.
    • For example: Sugars to polysaccharides, fatty acids to lipids (fats, membrane), amino acids to proteins, and nucleotides to nucleic acids
  78. How is the genetic compound of a cell forms?
    Nucleotide→nucleic acid→DNA→genetic compound of a cell.
  79. How proteins are form? What are their uses in a living cell?
    • Amino acids→Proteins
    • Proteins are use for many different things in cells such as support the membrane and transport
  80. What are the roles that sugars play in living cell?
    Form energy molecules (ATP) and some type of structure molecules
  81. What will happen if we interfere with the SPONCH elements of macromolecules?
    The cell will die because this element responsible to its structure, genetic components, protein production and energy supply
  82. Adenosine Triphosphate
    • ATP, a molecule that stores a lot of energy.
    • When the cell need energy, it break the weak bond between the ATP molecule and one of its phosphate group is separated. That will release a lot of useful energy
  83. How can we use osmolarity to control microbes growth?
    • If we create hypertonic environment the cell (bacteria) will dehydrate and die (water diffuse from low to high concentration of solute)
    • That is why we use salt or sugar to preserve foods
  84. How we can use pH level to kill microbes?
    • Most cell living in neutral pH level around 7.
    • We can use High or low pH solutions to kill microbes.

    For example: the use of bleach to disinfect household areas such as bathrooms.
  85. Which elements needed to use in media nutrient at the minimum for culture to grow?
  86. What are the advantage of pure culture?
    We can learn how a specific microbe is behaving and link it to a disease.
  87. What are the advantage of mixed culture?
    We can learn how these microbes are interact together and how this interaction effect the body
  88. If you like to see if a sample contains microbes or not which type of staining will be the best to use and why?
    Simple stain because it is much faster and simple than differential staining
  89. If you like to see what type microbes are in a sample  which type of staining will be the best to use and why?
    Differential staining will stain different of microbes in different colors
  90. When earth developed?
    4.5 billion years ago
  91. How long ago prokaryotes first developed?
    About 3.75 billion years ago
  92. Which are the first organism to release oxygen into the atmosphere by photosynthesis? What type of cell were they?
    • Blue-green algae
    • Prokaryotes (Even that algae is a eukaryotes, this algae is prokaryote)
  93. Define archea
    A domain between prokaryote and eukaryote that can live in extreme harsh environment conditions
  94. How prokaryotes different from eukaryote?
    Prokaryotes do not have nucleus & membrane bound organelles
  95. Define biofilm
    Many microbes growing together on a surface in a matrix
  96. Where biofilm can grow in our body?
    On the surface of our teeth, implanted medical devices, lungs, and urogenital tract.
  97. Where biofilm can grow in the environment?
    On the surface of rocks and bottom of stream
  98. Why biofilm has slippery slimy feel to it?
    Because the polysaccharides of the glycocalyx (the outermost layer of the bacteria)
  99. Why biofilms are important?
    Because when bacteria is growing in biofilm, is antibiotic resistance and it very hard to get rid of it
  100. What cell envelop is comprised of?
    • Cell wall
    • Membrane
  101. Define glycocalycx (in Prokaryote and eukaryotes)
    The outermost layer of the prokaryote & eukaryotes, made of polysaccharides & proteins.
  102. How glycocalyx benefit the bacteria?
    It allow bacteria to stick to tings, provides protection from dehydration, and sometimes protect the bacteria from immune response
  103. Name the two types of glycocalyx
    • Slime layer
    • Capsule
  104. What is cell wall made of?
    Peptidoglycan  layers
  105. What is the cell wall purpose?
    Provide support and structure to the cell
  106. What is the cell membrane purpose?
    Helps to bring in nutrients, get rid of waste, and provide a little support and shape to the cell
  107. Where the cell membrane is located in relation to cell wall?
    Cell membrane is underneath the cell wall
  108. Which type of bacteria has lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?
    Gram negative
  109. How gram positive's  cell envelop is different from gram negative's?
    • Gram positive has thicker cell wall (about 100 petidoglycan layers) and teichoic acid  in its cell wall.
    • Gram negative has an outer membrane above a thin cell wall (about 20 peptidoglican layers) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule in its cell wall and outer membrane
  110. Why lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is important?
    Even a small amount of LPS can cause a deadly immune response in the human body
  111. How gram stain process will color gram positive bacteria? How about gram negative?
    • Gram positive → purple
    • Gram negative → pink
  112. Why is important to identify if a disease causing bacteria is gram (+) or gram(-) before we treat a patient?
    Because each type of bacteria is treated with different type of antibiotic
  113. Although, most bacteria are falling into gram(+) and gram(-) categories there are two other categories of bacteria. what are they?
    • Acid-fast bacteria (they stikcy and immune resistant).
    • Cell wall-less bacteria they have no cell wall
  114. Which proteins comprise prokaryote's cytoskeleton? Why it's important that they different hen eukaryote's proteins?
    • MreB
    • ftsZ
    • creS
    • Because we can stop their production in disease causing bacteria without interfere with our own proteins.
  115. What are the function of cytoskeleton (bacteria)?
    • Give shape & structure to internal component of the cell
    • Help in metabolic reactions
    • take important role in cell division
  116. How is prokaryote's chromosome is different than eukaryote chromosome?
    • Prokaryote chromosome is circular and has only one copy of each gene
    • Eukaryote chromosome is linear and has tow copies of each gene
  117. Define plasmid
    • Small circular piece of DNA in some prokaryotes.
    • It gives prokaryotes useful extra functions 
    • Plasmid is not required to stay alive as the prokaryote's cromosome
  118. How is prokaryote's ribosome different than eukaryote's ribosome? How can it benefit us?
    • Prokaryote's ribosome (70S) is smaller than eukaryote's (80S) and they have different structure.
    • Because it have different structure than human's ribosome, we can stop it from making proteins without interfere with our ribosome.
  119. What are the main functions of inclusion bodies in prokaryotes?
    • store nutrients: Excess nutrient are stored for later use
    • Help with movement: iron inclusion bodies are use as a compass for bacteria and gas inclusion bodies can float bacteria as needed
  120. Define Flagella
    • Long piece of protein that starts between the cell wall and the cell membrane and project out of the cell
    • Allow the bacteria or eukaryote to move
  121. Positive taxis
    movement toward something
  122. Negative taxis
    movement away from something
  123. Chemotaxis
    Movement in response to chemical (can be toward or away from the chemical)
  124. Phototaxis
    Movement in response to light (can be toward or away from the light)
  125. How flagellum can help us to identify bacteria?
    Different species of bacteria have one flagella, two or more flagellum, or not at all.
  126. Define endospore
    • Protective coating for dormant bacteria.
    • Resistance of harsh environmental conditions such as heat, cold, chemical, radiation, and osmolarity.
  127. What triggers form of endospores?
    Unlivable environmental conditions.
  128. Know the steps that take place in endospores formation
    • 1. DAN replicated and pushed to the side of the cell
    • 2. plasma membrane,cell wall, and a very hard protective coating surrounds the new chromosome
    • 3.The original cell die and the endospore is freed from it
  129. Define fimbriae
    • Short medium length proteins that projected out of some species of bacteria.
    • Allow bacteria to stick to surfaces and to each other (form biofilm)
  130. Define Pili
    Long tube of protein that allow bacteria to attach itself to other bacteria and share genetic information
  131. How pili structure and function may concern us?
    If bacteria A has antibiotic resistance gene (plasmid), it can replicate it and share it with bacteria B. Than soon enough we going to have a lot of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
  132. How long ago eukaryote start to developed?
    Approximately 2.75 billion years ago. about a billion years after prokaryotes & archea
  133. How eukaryotes developed if the only cells on earth were prokaryote (bacteria) & archeae?
    The theory suggest that eukaryote combine two or more prokaryotes.
  134. know the steps of Endosymbiosis
    • 1 start with a big prokaryote and a small prokaryote.
    • 2. the big prokaryote engulfed the small prokaryote but didn't digest it.
    • 3. the small prokaryote lived inside the big prokaryote
    • 4. Both prokaryotes benefit from each other and supply each other with staff that they couldn't do by themselves.
    • 5. so when they reproduced this arrangement passed on to their offspring. so after many generations the two prokaryote become dependent on each other and become Eukaryote.
  135. Which structures in eukaryotes support the endosybiosis theory
    • Chloroplast & mitochondria
    • Both have the same size & shape as prokaryote
    • Two type of membrane which one (inner) is the same as in prokaryotes.
    • Similar DNA/RNA as in prokaryotes.
    • their Ribosomes are the same size as in prokaryotes (70S)
  136. What is the advantage of membrane-bound organelles then non-membrane-bound organelles?
    Membrane-bound organelles allow for more metabolic reactions to occur. this is why eukaryotas can grow bigger than prokaryotes and to form multicellular structures.
  137. Which are the three main external structures of eukaryotes?
    • Glycocalyx (various types of lipids,proteins, and polysaccharides)
    • Cell wall (only in fungi & algae)
    • Cell membrane.
  138. What is the biggest different between the cell membrane of eukaryote and prokaryote?
    • Sterols found only in eukaryotes mambrane
    • Help to stabilize the membrane.
  139. Which are the major internal structures of eukaryotes?
    • Nucleus Provide instructions, liner chromosome, two copies of each gene.
    • Endoplasmic reticulum use instructions to synthesis molecules (rough ER makes proteins & smooth ER makes CHO & lipids)
    • Golgi apparatus finalize the molecules and send them where they need to go inside or outside the cell.
  140. What is the size of eukaryotic ribosome?
  141. What is the main purpose of mitochondria & chloroplast?
    • Produce ATP from by use energy from their environment.
    • Mitochondria by breakdown molecules such as glucose and makes ATP.
    • Chloroplast by enable the organism to use light energy and make ATP and glucose.
  142. Where does the ATP production takes place in mitochondria & chloroplast?
    In the inner membrane
  143. What comprise eukaryotic cytoskeleton?
    • Microfilaments made of protein actin.
    • Intermediate are filaments that made of various proteins.
    • Microtubules Made of tubulin protein.
  144. What are the functions of eukaryotic cytoskeleton?
    Support the cell, transport (move things around the cell), cell division
  145. How bacteria (prokaryote) may use the eukaryotic cytoskeleton to infect eukaryotes?
    They will attach themselves to the cytoskeleton and use it as a road map to get around the cell.
  146. What are vesicles? What are they use for in eukaryotes?
    • Small membrane enclosed structures
    • Food storage, lysosomes, transport, and executory vesicles move waste out of the cell and signal information to other cells.
  147. Which are the two structures that allow mobility to eukaryotes? How do they function?
    • Flagella or flagellum whip lkie movement
    • Cilia move like a oar of a boat
  148. Eukaryotic microbes of significance (types of eukaryotes)
    • Fungi Multicellular/unicellular + cell wall
    • Algae Multicellular/unicellular + cell wall
    • Protozoa unicellular
    • Helminths multicellular
  149. Can fungi cause diseases? Why is it important to to know?
    • Yes, in humans, plants, and animals.
    • It's important to know because we can loose corps, livestock, and get sick ourselves
  150. How can we benefit from metabolism & byproducts of fungi?
    • Fermentation cause by some types of fungi take role in production of alcohol, acids, and many food products.
    • Some types of antibiotics are made of fungi
  151. Which are the two fungal lifestyles? How is that important?
    • Decoposers living in/on a dead organism
    • Parasites living in/on live organism
    • It's important because fungi can cause diseases and kill the organism. If fungi is living in dead organism, it has an important role in nutrient cycling.
  152. What are the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi?
    • Unicellular are yeasts: typically oval shape. during yeast infection the cells get long shape and their bodies joint together to form pseudohyphae (chain like) structure.
    • Multicellular are molds. They form hyphae thread like structure that form from the same body.
  153. Candida albicans
    Yeast infection of the urogenital tract
  154. Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Yeast use in raising dough
  155. Coccidiodesimmitis
    Mold infection of the bones
  156. Penicilliunspp
    Antibiotics made of mold
  157. How algae can effect human health?
    • Algae is use in food production such as sushi.
    • Algae is the biggest oxygen producer on the planet (more then plants).
    • Some type of algae produce toxin such as red tide that can effect humans and animals.
  158. What is algae role in environmental applications?
    • Water quality: Often we can tell the quality of water by the type of algae it consist.
    • Energy source: We can make bio-diesel from special algae that attach itself to lipids.
    • industrial applications: special species of algae has glass in its cell wall that is used to produce fertilizer. We also can make chock from algae dried skeletons.
  159. Prototheca sp
    An algae that can cause infection in cattle, dogs, and human with immunocompromised disease (HIV or cancer)
  160. How many main groups of protozoa are there? How do they organized?
    • Four main groups.
    • organized by locomotive structure (the way they look)
  161. Define protozoa
    • Protozoa = first animal
    • Their cell is very similar to human/animal cell
  162. Define cyst
    • A protective structure that wraps the protozoa. its protect the protozoa from environment conditions such as extreme temperature dehydration etc.
    • The protozoa will release from the cyst when the environment conditions will be suitable to support its life.
  163. Why treatment of protozoa infection can be complicated?
    Because the protozoa cell is so similar to our cells special medications are require to treat it.
  164. What impact has protozoa on the environment?
    • Predators: Protozoa eat fungi, bacteria, and algae. This help to keep the level of organism in balance.
    • We use protozoa as insecticide: Special species of protozoa is use to kill grass hopper and will not ham human. It help reduce the use of chemical in our environment.
    • Help in animal digestion: protozoa that lives inside a termite, digest the wood that the termite ingests and share they share the nutrients and ATP.
  165. Define parasitic protozoa
    Lives inside our body and can make us sick
  166. Trichomonasvaginalis
    Parasitic protozoa that cause a urogenital disease trichomoniasis. If developed, there is a greenish-yellow odorous discharge
  167. Plasmodium malariae
    Parasitic protozoa that cause malaria. This protozoa lives in the white blood cells and interfere with their function and often times destroy them.
  168. Giardia lambila
    Parasitic protozoa that cause giardiasis. enter the body by ingestion (of water). release from its cyst in the body and attach itself to the wall of intestine. Cause bad diarrhea some time yellow and foamy.
  169. Define helminths
    Helminths are pasties that infect people and animals.
  170. Helminths characteristics
    • They have a complex life circle (involve many steps)
    • They have reduce locomotive mean. They can't move by themselves and they depend on their host to move them.
    • They have special bodies. They lack of digestive system and get all their nutrients from their host.
    • Their body type allows them to reproduce very fast sometimes between 10,000 to 20,000 per day
  171. Which are the two phyla (main groups of helminths)?
    • Platyhelminths: (flat ones) have two types trematodes (Flukes) and cestodes (Tapeworms)
    • Nematodes:round worms
  172. What types of infections do helminths cause in humans?
    • Internal bleeding (anemia)
    • Nutrient deficiency: Helmitusesnutrints, tissue damage that interfere with absorption.
    • General organ & tissue destruction
  173. How are helminths used in therapy treatment?
    Pig worms are use to treat people with autoimmune disorder that attack different pats of the GI tract. The patient drinks a solution with pig worm eggs. After the eggs hatched, the patient immune system attack the worms instead its own body.
  174. What advantage a virus have from its small size?
    Help it invade cells
  175. How had viruses discovered?
    • Before the electronic microscope has developed, people suspected that some disease was caused by something smaller then bacteria.
    • A sample of solution has drawn from the sick animal and filtered all the bacteria out of the liquid. Than the filtered solution introduced to an healthy animal and caused the same disease. It called virus
  176. Viral shapes
    • Helical: a rod shape
    • Icosaherdal: round (20 sided dice)
  177. Define Capsid
    • Hard covering shell around the virus
    • Made up from proteins subunits called capsomeres
    • Capsid is resistant to destruction and many times disinfectants cannot destroy viruses
  178. How is viral genetic material unique?
    • Viral genetic material can be either DNA or RNA and each of these can be single strand or double strand and circular or linear.
    • Also the number of genes in viral nucleic acid is vary and does not related to how sick it can make us
  179. Define naked virus
    A virus with only capsid shell and nucleic acid.
  180. Define enveloped virus
    A virus (capsid shell & genetic material) that taken a piece of its host membrane lipid covering) and wrap itself with it.
  181. Define spikes
    • Viral proteins on the envelop of enveloped viruses.
    • spikes are use by the virus to attach to the host cell.
  182. What does it means "virus is an obligate parasite.
    Viruses must have to be inside a host cell in order to function
  183. How typically viruses damage their host cell?
    They interfere with the cell's metabolism and replication and most of the time kill the cell
  184. Which are the major categories of viral infections?
    • Acute infection: flue/colds
    • Latent infection: the virus is dormant most of the time but will cause infections when it's get active again (herpes simplex)
    • Persistent infection: on going infection (aids) and Concussion cause cancer
  185. What are the steps of animal virus replication?
    • 1. Adsorption (attachment to the host cell)
    • 2. Penetration (penetrate into the hosts cytoplasm & release of the nucleic acid from the capsid)
    • 3. Synthesis (the virus direct the host cell to translate and produce viral genetic material and proteins)
    • 4. assembly (first the capsid shell is put together and then the nucleic acid is inserted to the shell also spikes are implanted in the cell membrane that will use for the virus envelop)
    • 5. Release (The virus pinch off a piece of the host cell membrane on it's way out of the cell and then it's ready to infect other cells close by leaving the host cell to die)
  186. How does viruses attach themselves to the host cells? Can any cell be a host to any virus?
    • No.
    • The spikes on the virus envelop must match the receptors (special glycoproteins) on the cell membrane. if there is no match, an adsorption cannot be made.
  187. What are the differences between fusion & endocytosis of penetration step?
    • In diffusion the envelop of the virus bombined withe the membrane of the cell and the cell pull the virus into its cytoplasm.
    • In endocytosis special proteins in the cell membrane engulf the whole virus into a vesicle that later release the virus inside the cytoplasm
  188. Which rare the two parts of penetration step?
    • Fusion or endocytosis (penetration of the virus through the plasma membrane of the cell)
    • Uncoating (separation of the plasmid and the viral nucleic acid)
  189. Define bacteriophage
    A virus that infect only bacteria
  190. How bacteriophage (phage) can cause disease in humans?
    • Some types of phage that infecting harmless (to humans) bacteria alter some of the bacteria genes causing them to release toxins that make us sick.
    • Although bacteriophage do not infect us directly, they can indirectly make us sick bye infecting some of our normal body flora.
  191. How can we use viruses to treat bacterial infections?
    • Bacteriophage (virus that attack only bacteria) treatment is use in Europe to treat some type of bacterial infection.
    • Phage is harmless to human bat can kill bacteria.
  192. How can we use viruses in medicine and society?
    Viruses can be useful as long as we can direct them to do what we like then to do.
  193. Define prions
    Prions are pieces of proteins similar in structure to cell proteins
  194. How can prions hurt us?
    • They cause plaques in the brain tissue
    • first they inserted to the cell membrane
    • than thy cause the membrane proteins to change.
    • That cause the membrane to fall apart and the cell dies.
    • When too many cell die, it create a hole in the brain tissue.