Psychology 1 - CH3

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Shikhye
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258408
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Psychology 1 - CH3
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2014-02-02 14:33:20
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Psychology PCC
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Psychology CH3 Human Development
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  1. developmental psychology
    the study of changes in behavior and mental processes over time and the factors that influence the course of those changes
  2. maturation
    the unfolding of development in a particular sequence and time frame
  3. stage
    developmental period characterized by a certain level of functioning that is qualitatively different from the functioning that characterizes other stages
  4. critical periods
    • points in development when an organism is extremely
    • sensitive to environmental input, making it easier for the organism to
    • acquire certain brain functions and behaviors
  5. cross-sectional design
    research comparisons of groups of different aged-people to one another
  6. longitudinal design
    research following the same people over a period of time by administering the same tasks or questionnaires and seeing how their responses change
  7. cohort-sequential design
    a blended cross-sectional and longitudinal research design that follows at least two different age groups over time
  8. prenatal period
    period of developmental stretching from conception to birth
  9. genes
    basic building blocks of biological inheritance
  10. deoxyribonucleic acid
    (DNA) molecules in which genetic information is enclosed
  11. chromosomes
    strands of DNA; each human being has 46 chromosomes distributed in pairs
  12. genotype
    a person's genetic inheritance
  13. phenotype
    the observable manifestation of a person's genetic inheritance
  14. allele
    variation of a gene
  15. homozygous
    both parents contribute the same genetic material fora particular trait
  16. heterozygous
    parents contribute two different alleles to offspring
  17. dominant trait
    trait that is expressed in a phenotype, no matter whether the genotype is homozygous or heterozygous for the trait
  18. recessive trait
    trait that is only expressed if a person carries the same two genetic alleles (e.g., is homozygous for the trait)
  19. discrete trati
    trait that results as the product of a single gene pairing
  20. polygenic trait
    trait that manifests itself as the result of the contributions of multiple genes
  21. temperament
    biologically based tendencies to respond to certain situations in similar ways throughout our lifetimes
  22. zygote
    single cell resulting from successful fertilization of the egg by sperm
  23. placenta
    nutrient-rich structure that serves to feed the developing fetus
  24. miscarriage
    discharge of the fetus from the uterus before it is able to function on its own
  25. teratogens
    environmental agents that can interfere with a fetus's development during gestation
  26. proximodistal pattern
    a pattern in which growth and developmental proceed from top to bottom
  27. cephalocaudal pattern
    a pattern in which growth and developmental proceed from top to bottom
  28. reflexes
    programmed physical reactions to certain cues that do not require any conscious thought to perform
  29. motor skills
    ability to control bodily movements
  30. synapses
    transmission points between neurons
  31. synaptic pruning
    developmental reduction of neuronal connections, allowing stronger connections of flourish
  32. myelination
    developmental of fatty deposits on neurons that allow electric impulses to pass through neurons more efficiently
  33. cognitive development
    changes in thinking that occur over the course of time
  34. schemata
    Piaget's proposed mental structures or frameworks for understanding or thinking about the world
  35. assimilation
    one of two ways of acquiring knowledge, defined by Piaget as the inclusion of new information or experiences into preexisting schemata
  36. accomodation
    one of two ways of acquiring knowledge, defined by Piaget as the alteration of preexisting mental frameworks to take in new information
  37. equilibrium
    balance in a mental framework
  38. object permanence
    an infant's realization that objects continue to exist even when they are outside the infant's immediate sensory awareness
  39. information-processing theory
    developmental theory focusing on how children take in and use information from their environment
  40. habituation
    process in which individuals pay less attention to a stimulus after it is presented to them over and over again
  41. attachment
    a close emotional bond to another person, such as a baby to a caregiver
  42. reciprocal socialization
    the transactional relationship between parent and child
  43. operations
    Piagetian description of a child's ability to hold an idea in his or her mind and mentally manipulate it
  44. preoperational stage
    according to Piaget, a developmental stage during which the child begins to develop ideas of objects in the external world and the ability to work with them in his or her mind
  45. egocentrism
    flaws in a child's reasoning based on his or her inability to take other perspectives
  46. conversation
    the understanding that certain properties of an object (such as volume and number) remain the same despite changes in the objects outward appearance
  47. concrete operations
    Piagetian stage during which children are able to talk about complex relationships, such as categorization and cause and effect,  but are still limited to understanding ideas in terms of real-world relationships
  48. theory of mind
    a recognition that other people base their behaviors on their own perspective not on information that is unavailable to them
  49. scaffolding
    developmental adjustments that adults make to give children that help that they need, but not so much that they fail to remove
  50. zone of proximal developmental
    the gap between what a child can accomplish alone and what the child can accomplish with help from others
  51. private speech
    a child's self-talk which Vygotsky believed the child uses to regulate behavior and internal experiences
  52. formal operations
    Piaget's final stage of cognitive development; the child achieves formal adult reasoning and the ability to think about things the don't have a concrete reality
  53. menopause
    series of changes in hormonal function occurring in women during their 50s which lead to the end of the menstrual cycle and reproductive capabilities
  54. cellular clock theory
    theory suggesting that we age because our cells have built-in limits on their ability to produce
  55. wear-and-tear theory
    theory suggesting we age because use of our body wears it out
  56. free-radical theory
    theory suggesting we age because special negatively charged oxygen molecules become more prevalent in our body as we get older, destabilizing cellular structures and causing the effects of aging
  57. risk factors
    biological and environmental factors that contribute to problematic outcomes
  58. conduct disorder
    clinical disorder in children and adolescents associated with emotional and behavioral problems, such as rule-breaking, trouble with limit-setting from authority figures, bullying and fighting with other people, and cruelty
  59. equifinality
    the idea that different individuals can start out from different places and wind up at the same outcome
  60. multifinality
    the idea that children can start from the same spot and wind up in an number of other outcomes
  61. resilience
    the ability to recover from or avoid the serious effects of negative circumstances

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