EVOL.PSY Glossary

Card Set Information

EVOL.PSY Glossary
2014-01-28 05:05:08
Evolutionary psychology

Show Answers:

  1. Define Allele
    • Different versions of the same gene are called alleles (pronounced 'al-eels'). For example, the gene for eye colour has an allele for blue eye colour and an allele for brown. For any gene, a person may have the same two alleles or two different ones.
  2. True altruism
    • To an evolutionary psychologist true
    • altruism involves behaviour that promotes the
    • inclusive fitness of another at a cost to oneself.
  3. arbitrary culture theory
     The theory that the variation seen in customs and practices between cultures may be traced back to arbitrary events rather than being related to human adaptations
  4. arms race
    • The phenomenon of achange or improvement on one side of a competitionleading to change or improvement in theother. Applied particularly, but notexclusively, to predator/prey andhost/parasite relationships.
  5. Difference between Asperger's syndrome and autism?
    • Asperger’s syndrome A condition like autism but sufferers are usually less intellectually 
    • impaired. Technically Asperger’s syndrome differs from autism in that sufferers from Asperger’s syndrome do not suffer impaired language or language delay.
  6. 1. What disorder is significantly affecting children's "Theory of mind"
    2. What is "Theory of mind"?
    • 1. Autism
    • 2. Theory of mind is the ability to infer the mental states of others
  7. co-efficient of relatedness (r)
    The proportion of genes shared between two relatives,measured on a scale of 0–1.
  8. computational theory of mind
    The belief that the mind can be described as a typeof computation produced by the brain.
  9. Constrictivism
    1. Define the term
    2. Who was a major proponent of this theory
    3. This theory is a partial mixture of two other major theories, what are these?

    A position held by Piaget which proposes that development occurs as a result of an interaction between innate principles and experience. VS Nativism and Empiricism.
  10. Coolidge effect
    • The observation that male animals (including humans), following mating, demonstrate renewed sexual potency when a novel receptive femaleappears.
  11. What does Corpus Callosum consist of and where is it located?
    • Nerve fibres in the brain, connecting the cerebral hemispheres
  12. Cortical plasticity occurs above all during
    - Brain injury
    - Development of the brain
    During an injury
  13. Critical Period?
    A developmental period within which certain experiences must be had in order for them to be learned. There is evidence to suggest that in the development of the visual system, for example, certain inputs have to be experienced before a certain age in order for vision to develop normally
  14. Crossing-Over
    • The exchange of genes between two homologous chromosomes prior to gamete formation.
  15. Cryptic oestrus
    Notion that humans unlike other animals do not display estrus, thus seem like they are able to conceive any time.
  16. Culturegens is E.O Wilson's term - What does it mean and what is an alternative (substantially more well-known) term for the same phenomena?
    • A unit of cultural inheritance
    • AKA Meme
  17. Derivational morphology

    In language this is the way in which words are modified by the addition of morphemes to make new words. For example the recent coinage ‘microwaveable’ is made up of three morphemes, ‘micro’, ‘wave’ and ‘able’.
  18. Developmental plasticity
    The theory that malleability is built into development as an adaptation.
  19. Diploid
    An organism is diploid if it has two pairs of chromosomes in each cell. Ina species that reproduces sexually one of each pair of chromosomes comes from each parent.
  20. Display Rules (Rather stringent in Sweden but more so in Asia)
    The unwritten rules that determine the extent to which emotions maybe exhibited publicly in a given society.
  21. What is DNA?
    • The chemical of which genes are composed. Physically it is a giant double helix molecule.
  22. DUAL inheritance culture
    A theory proposed by Boyd and Richerson, who argue thathumans have two sources of inheritance, via the genes and via culture. In their theory culture evolved as a way of enabling humans to change more rapidly in an uncertain world
  23. What does EEA stand for, and what 3 components does it involve?
    • Environmental of Evolutionary Adaptiveness. 
    • A combination of the time, place and ecological pressures faced by our species during its evolution.
  24. Eugenics
    A practice whereby humans are ‘selectively bred’ for the good of humanity. So-called positive eugenics attempts to mate people with positive characteristics (e.g. people who are industrious or intelligent), negative eugenics, on the other hand, seeks to prevent people deemed unfit from breeding.
  25. EVOKED Culture
    Tooby and Cosmides suggest that certain cultural phenomena mightbe innate and are triggered by the environment; these are known as evoked culturalphenomena
  26. evolutionarily stable strategy
    • A strategy that is successful in a population where that strategy is most common.
    • (Examples?)
  27. What does Female Choice refer to, and why is the theory proposed?
    The theory that females should be more selective than males when it comes to choosing a sexual partner because they invest more heavily in offspring.
  28. Fitness?
    A measure of the number of offspring produced, or, in the view of some evolutionists, the proportion of genes passed on to future generations.
  29. A sperm or egg cell AKA?

  30. The fundamental unit of heredity; a section of DNA that codes for one polypeptide. Since proteins are made up of polypeptides then we can say that these code for proteins.
    • Gene(s)
  31. Gene Selection
    • The notion that natural selection occurs at the level of the gene.
    • Dawkin's Selfish Gene
  32. Gene-culture co-evolution
    E. O.Wilson’s suggestion of how genes and culture interact. Culture, he argues, is constrained by the genes.
  33. All of the genes that an organism possess.
    "The human ..."
  34. GENOtype
    The genetic constitution of an organism encoded in the nucleus of each cell of the body.
  35. (ARISTOTLE'S) false theory of evolution which sees some creatures as more highly evolved than others. This view would see humans as being a more evolved version of a chimp, rather than the correct view which sees each descending from a common ancestor. 2 terms

    Great Chain of Being, AKA Scala Naturae
  36. A theory proposed by Judith Harris which suggests that peer groups have a greater impact on a child’s socialisation and personality development than the parental environment.
    Group Socialisation Theory
  37. Handicap Hypothesis
    (Proposed by? A.Z)
    The theory that males develop an impediment such as elaborate tail feathers in order to demonstrate to potential mates their ability to survive despite having such a handicap. First proposed by Amotz Zahavi in 1975.
  38. Sexy Son Hypothesis

    The sexy son hypothesis suggests that a female optimal choice among potential mates is a male whose genes will produce male offspring with the best chance of reproductive success by having trait(s) being attractive to other females. Sometimes the trait may have no reproductive benefit in itself, apart from attracting females, because of Fisherian runaway. The peacock's tail may be one example. It has also been seen as an example of the handicap principle.
  39. Haploid?
    Also give example of an Haploid in humans
    An organism is said to be haploid if it has a single set of chromosomes in each cell. Sex cells (i.e. sperm and ova) are also haploid in sexually reproducing diploid (e.g. humans) species.
  40. Heritability
    The extent to which a characteristic is due to genetic rather than environmental components.
  41. Heterozygous
    • Having different alleles at the same locus on each of the paired chromosomes in a cell’s nucleus.
  42. Heuristic
    A ‘rule of thumb’ used for achieving some end such as solving a problem.Heuristics are normally fast and computationally inexpensive even though theymight not always work. They are usually contrasted with algorithms, which guarantee the correct solution if there is one but are often costly and time consuming to use.
  43. A human-like ancestor.
  44. Place in order:
    Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo sapiens 
    • 1. Homo habilis An early ancestor of humans living around two million years ago.
    • 2. Homo erectus An early ancestor of humans living around 1.8 million to less than 100,000 years ago.
    • 3. Homo sapiens The species to which we belong. Evolved less than 400,000 years ago.
  45. Chemical messengers secreted by a number of glands to regulate the activity of various parts of the body. Hormones play a role in growth and sexual development and activity as well as helping to regulate metabolism.