The Ear

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Author:
Vcrawford
ID:
258464
Filename:
The Ear
Updated:
2014-01-30 21:11:14
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Ear Anatomy
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Study cards for parts of the ear and their responsibilities
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  1. Outer ear
    Contains two parts: pinna and the external auditory meatus
  2. Pinna
    External ear; made up of folds and convolutions that help locate sound sources; also keeps foreign matter out of the ear canal.
  3. Tympanic membrane
    aka eardrum; where outer ear ends
  4. External Auditory Meatus
    auditory canal approx 1 inch in length and ends at the eardrum
  5. Stereophonic hearing
    Use of both ears; aka binaural hearing
  6. Ossicles
    hammer, anvil, stirrup: 3 small bones that thru lever action transmit and increase sound pressure as it travels thru middle ear
  7. Eustachian Tube
    tube bt nasopharynx and the middle ear keeping air pressure inside the middle ear equalized with the outside
  8. Oval Window
    membrane bt the footplate of the stapes and the scale vestibuli of the inner ear
  9. Cochlea
    organ of hearing in the inner ear; coiled tube win a tube, transduces and encodes mech vibes into electrochem neurological signals
  10. Vestibule
    area in the base of the cochlea which translates bt the semicircular canals and the cochlea
  11. Semicircular canals
    attached to hearing apparatus, give feedback on one's balance
  12. transducer
    converter of one form of energy to another; cochlea is an ex, turns mech energy to electrical signals
  13. Hearing
    process by which sounds are transmitted from the environment to our brains
  14. perception
    sensory translations of environmental signals
  15. Middle Ear
    begins at the boundary formed by the tympanic membrane; contains the ossicles and the Eustachian tube
  16. Inner ear
    Contains the cochlea,vestibule, and the semicircular canals
  17. Conductive Hearing Loss
    shift of the threshold of audibility due to mech impairment of any part or combo of parts of the ear
  18. Perilymph
    liquid that fills scala vestibule and scala tympani
  19. Apical end
    The small end in the center of the cochlea (in the center)
  20. Round window
    membrane separating the middle ear cavity from the scala tympani of the inner ear. flexible and will be in opposite phase w/the oval window when tonal stimulus is present
  21. Scala vestibule
    upper level of the cochlea bordered by the oval window at its inception, the helicotrema at the apex, the cochlear wall, and Reissner's membrane; filled with perilymph
  22. Helicotrema
    narrow opening at the apical end of the cochlea separating the scala vestibuli from the scala tympani
  23. Scala tympani
    lower level of the cochlea bordered by the helicotrema at the apical end, the round window at the base, the cochlear wall and the basilar membrane; filled with perilymph
  24. cochlear duct
    tube within a tube lying bt the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. contains endolymph and houses the Organ of Corti; upper wall is REissner's membrane
  25. Endolymph
    fluid in the cochlear duct
  26. Organ of Corti
    on lower side of cochlear duct; composed of 23, 500 hair cells, each of which project 14 cilia each into the endolymph thru the reticular membrane.  Supported by the basilar membrane, which stimulates the hair cells to trigger nerve impulses when deformed by pressure
  27. basilar membrane
    membrane which divides the scala tympani from the cochlear duct. supports the Organ of Corti
  28. Cilia
    microscopic "hairs" of the hair cells extending thru the reticular membrane.  approx 14 cilia atop each hair cell
  29. reticular membrane
    membrane covering the hair cells, yet allowing the cilia to extend upward thru it
  30. tectorial membrane
    membrane extending across the top of Corti's organ.  When ciliar are deformed by being compressed agst this membrane, the hair cells stimulate the auditory nerve to fire
  31. Deafness
    Total hearing loss
  32. Sensory-neural hearing loss
    noncorrectable hearing loss due to damage, malformation or degeneration of a portion of the neural system in the ear
  33. audiologist
    one trained to give hearing exams and interpret their results
  34. audiometric exam
    general name given to hearing tests which include the charting of minimum threshold intensity, rating of a wide frequency range in both ears, word perception, bone conduction and a visual inspection of the external ear.  given in a sound-treated chamber and take from one-half hr to 3 hrs
  35. External otitis
    inflammation of the outer ear
  36. otitis media
    inflammation in the middle ear
  37. otosclerosis
    disease in which the bony growths inhibit the mech operation of the parts of the middle ear
  38. tinnitus
    ringing in the ears
  39. Temporary threshold shift
    temporary hearing loss due to exposure to loud noises; aka "Acoustic Trauma"
  40. Equalization
    tailoring the frequency audible spectrum to particular intensity levels; in this case to the frequencies the audiologist says need boosting

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