Studying history lets us learn from experiences of the past who have confronted similar situations, and this allows us to better control our destiny.
Historians interpret the past for the purpose of managing the future.
Aim #2: Why can we say that we're all African?
Eastern and southern Africa is the birthplace of human kind.
Lucy was discocered in Eastern Africa's Great Rift Valley.
The Leaky's discovered footprints in Laetoli.
Paleontologists study past human life using artifacts and fossils.
Aim #3: How did the Neolithic Revolution change human existence?
The discovery of agriculture changed humans socially, politically, economically, religiously, and technologically.
Aim #4: What were the long term effects of the Neolithic Revolution?
The Neolithic Revolution caused the developments of civilizations and all the things civilization brings along with it.
Aim #5: Did the early river civilizations have much in common?
All the early river civilizations rose near river valleys because of fertile soil for crops and the opportunity for larger populations.
They faced similar challenges, such as the dangers of flooding and irrigation projects that required leadership and laws.
Aim #6: Did Hammurabi's code improve life in Mesopotamia?
King Hammurabi of Babylon unified the city-states of Mesopotamia with the world's earliest known written law code.
They ensured order, fought evil, and protected the weak, but were harsh and differed by social class.
Aim #7: How did the early bronze and iron age trading peoples influence Western civilization?
Civilizations other than the four river valley civilizations began to develop.
Copper -> Bronze -> Iron
Aim #8: How did Greece's geography affect its culture?
The mountainous terrain led to to isolation and independent city-states.
The seas created a link to the outside world and caused expansion.
The Greek irregular coastline provided natural harbors for trade and cultural diffusion.
Aim #9: Can Minoan and Mycenaean culture be considered the "roots" of Greek civilization?
The Minoans flourished on the island of Crete.
A second ancient civilization thrived on the city-state Mycenae on Greece's mainland.
Cultural diffusion was caused by wars between the two.
The Mycenaeans are considered the true roots of Greek culture.
Aim #10: How did democracy rise in Ancient Athens?
The citizens overthrew the cruel and abusive tyrants.
Monarchy: one ruler
Ogliarchy: ruled by a few aristocrats
Tyranny: power is illegally seized
Democracy: controlled by the people
Aim #11: How did war both unite and divide the ancient Greek world?
The Greek city-states fought together against the Persian empire in the Persian Wars.
To prevent further attacks, Athens formed the Delian league and collected money.
The Greek city-states fought against each other in the Peloponnesian wars.
Herodotus is the father of history.
Aim #12: What was life like during the "golden age" of Athens?
Athens' golden age was one of art, literature, and philosophy.
Aim #13: Could the Peloponnesian Wars have been avoided?
Though Athens and Sparta were both Greek they differed in views on government, treatment of non-citizens, trade, and social values.
They both formed different alliances. Athens had the Delian League, and Sparta had the Peloponnesian League.
Aim #14: Did Greek artists stove to create the real or the ideal?
The Greeks saw art as a representation of perfection, not reality.
The Greeks appreciated simplicity, balance, and elegance in their art and architecture.
The Greek builders sought to convey a sense of perfect balance to reflect the harmony and balance of the universe.
Aim #15: What's so "great" about Alexander anyways?
He spread hellenistic culture throughout the Ancient world.
He is credited with creating the "Hellenistic Era."
Aim #16: How did the Roman Republic become the Roman Empire?
A group known as the Latins overthrew an abusive Etruscan kind and set up a republic.
One leader, Caesar was too powerful and was assassinated.
All leaders afterward had full power of Rome.
Aim #17: Does the US owe a debt to the Roman republic?
The governments or the republic and US are very similar, each featuring executive legislative, and judicial branches.
Aim #18: What role did the Roman city play in the expansion of the empire?
Roman strengths were in government, law, and engineering. They knew how to make laws, govern people, and make roads.
Aim #19: Did the "legacy" of ancient Rome deserve praise or condemnation?
Rome's Legacy: Law
Pleabian demands for protection and equality led to the Twelve Tables, a written law code dispelled in the forum.
They established the idea that a person is "innocent until proven guilty."
The early Roman city-states had 2 social classes.
10% of citizens - wealthy patricians
90% of citizens - commoners
Consuls were two individuals who were elected by the senate and commanded the army/supervised government.
Tribunes wer elected by plebeians and protected their interests.
Aim #20: Why did Christianity appeal to the Roman world?
Christianity begin in the Mideast and is based on the beliefs of Jesus who taught brotherhood, charity, and peace.
Roman emperors saw this as a threat to the Roman belief in polytheism.
Aim #21: Could the fall of Rome been avoided?
Military spending, unemployment, urban decay, and a decline in moral values led to the fall of Rome.
Rome couldn't defend its borders in the western empire. It fell to the Germanic tribes.
Aim #23: Should the legacy of the early Aryans be seen as a blessing or a curse for India?
The Aryans invaded India through the Khyber pass and destroyed the Indus civilization and created a new way of life. They brought on the caste system.
Aim #24: What role has Hinduism played in creating culture in ancient India?
Hinduism ranks people according to Caste.
The rules provide order and are a guide to proper conduct in society.
Aim #25: What role has Buddhism played in creating culture in East Asia?
Buddhism is a philosophy of self-denial and meditation.
It rejects the caste system and believes in ridding oneself of desire.
Aim #26: Did ancient India possess "classical" civilization characteristics?
A classical civilization has a strong government, a legacy of ideas passed on to others, and expansive trade networks.
Aim #27: Did China's geography help or hurt its development?
China's borders are protected by many mountains, plateaus, deserts, and seas that permitted it to develop a uniform culture in isolation from others.
This isolation led to ethnocentrism.
Aim #28: Did the ancient Chinese have an effective means of replacing their leaders?
The chinese divide their history into dynasties - periods of time when the region is under the rule of one family.
A dynasty is led by an emperor through a Mandate of Heaven.
Aim #29: Should China's "first emperor" Shi Haungdi be praised or condemned for his actions?
The Qin warlord Shi Haungdi defeated his rivals and unified China.
He was harsh and did not tolerate challenge to his rule and was obsessed with large building projects, such as the Great Wall and his grave.
Aim #30: Why has the rule under the Han Dynasty been called a "Golden Age" for China?
After the oppressive rule of Shi Huangdi ended with his death, the Chinese people revolted. This led to the establishment of the Han Dynasty.
Under the Han, trade thrived along the silk road, territory expanded, and China entered a Golden Age.
This Golden Age was one of technological advancements.
Aim #31: Why did the ancient Chinese embrace Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism?
The confucian emphasis on family and morals was not enough to satisfy the need for explanations of a human's place in the universe.
Daoism attempts to account for the mysteries of the world and explains that creation was the process of natural forces.
Aim #32: Did Constantine make a good choice in moving the capital of Rome to Byzantium?
The control of the Bosporous Straight made the city a trading hub.
The Byzantine Empire is a bridge to the modern world and connects ancient Europe to modern Europe.
Constantinople was heavily influenced by Greek and Roman culture.
Aim #33: How successful was Justinian in reviving Rome's glory?
Justinian, the Byzantine Empire's greatest ruler, was devout, determined, and energetic. His authority to rule came from God (divine right).
He rebuilt Constantinople and modeled it after Rome.
He revised Roman law codes and named them Justinian's Code which brought order and stability to the empire.
His wife and co-empress, Theodora, was wise and had political skill. She encouraged him to expand women's rights and crush the Nika Rebellion.
Aim #34: How did religious controversy split Eastern and Western Rome forever?
Icons are pictures of sacred figures or events.
In the Roman Catholic Church (west), icons were respected because they drew new members in and allowed the illiterate to feel a connection.
In the Greek Orthodox Church (east/Byzantine), icons were viewed as blasphemous and become iconoclasts (icon smashers).
This argument caused the Great Schism in 1054 AD.
Aim #35: Why was Constantinople in a good location to be the capital of a trading and military empire?
It was connect to three continents by rivers, seaways, and roads.
it was protected by water, had a complex triple wall system, the golden horn, and utilized greek fire.
Aim #36: Where in the world was the Muslim Empire?
In the 600's, a new religion called Islam emerged on the Arabian peninsula.
Within 100 years, it controlled an area larger than the Roman Empire at its height.
Aim #37: How was a Muslim Empire created in the middle east?
Makkah was an important trade stop and religious center of Arabia. It is the location of the Kaaba.
First inhabitants of Arabia were Bedouins (nomadic arabs). They practiced polytheism and valued camels
The Quraysh were a powerful local tribe that controlled Mecca before Muhammed.
Muhammed taught Monotheism, equality, sharing of wealth, righteousness, and a "judgement day." The Meccans resisted the idea of sharing wealth and plotted to kill him. He was protected by his family but eventually had to leave to Medinah (this journey is called the Hidrah).
Aim #38: How does Islam create a way of life for Muslims?
The Quaran is a holy book for Muslims.
The Sunna is a compilation of Muhammed's personal words and ideas.
Islam provides 5 pillars of faith including:
-Almsgiving (sharing wealth)
-Fasting during Ramadan
-The Hajj, a pilgrimage to Mecca
-Belief in 1 God, Allah
- Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
Aim #39: What impact did Muhammed's death have on Islamic history?
After his death, Muhammed's successors (called Caliphs) expanded Muslim territory.
Division arose over who should be his successor. Two groups formed:
-Sunnis, who believed the successor should be the most eligible person.
-Shiites, who believed the successor should be related to Muhammed.
Aim #40:Was the Muslim Empire a preserver or creator of culture?
Muslim civilizations golden age happened under the Abbasid dynasty.
The House of Wisdom was a library and learning institution in Baghdad. It preserved and translated Greek and Roman works while Europe experienced the dark ages.
They also created hospitals, arabic numerals, and and calligraphy.
Aim #41: Why can the early middle ages be considered an "Age of Turmoil" for Western Europe?
The biggest priority was defending themselves from invasions.
They were powerless and vulnerable because of this.
Viking invasions contributed to feudalism's popularity.
Manorialism is the economic system of the relationship between those who held the land and those who worked it.
Aim #42: Who was Charlemagne?
The "light of the dark ages"
United Western Europe and converted many to Christianity. He stressed education and fought off vikings.