Less Lethal

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  1. What is the less lethal force philosophy?
    A concept of planning and force application, designed to meet an operational objective, with significantly reduced potential for death or serious bodily injury than conventional tactics and means.
  2. Requires the use of specially trained personnel with special equipment and techniques.  Also requires proper supervisory training and capabilities.
  3. Anything over ______ of energy may result in internal body damage.
    72 foot pounds
  4. medical statistics show that _____ of energy can cause devastating internal damage.
    90 foot pounds
  5. SIMs are deployed with the sole purpose to cause ____ and at times cause sufficient _____ _____ to disorient or incapacitate an individual.
    • pain
    • blunt trauma
  6. Are injuries expected? Why?
    • Yes.
    • This is necessary to achieve compliance from a violator.
  7. What is fluid shock?
    Kinetic energy transfer of the SIM to a fluid mass object such as a human.
  8. What is blunt trauma?
    An impact that does no barrier penetration of the skin but causes enough pain to incapacitate the subject.
  9. What are the three prongs used to evaluate impact munitions?
    • Accuracy
    • Effectiveness
    • Potential for serious injury / death
  10. What is the acceptable standard of accuracy?
    The repeated rounds into a 6" circle at 15 yards.
  11. What are the two primary factors about munitions and the injury potential?
    • The amount of tissue (the mass)
    • The speed of tissue deformation (how quickly it moves)
  12. The ______ principle from kinetic energy movement is also the primary mechanism behind incapacitation.
    fluid shock wave
  13. The shock wave that causes pain, movement of tissue and temporary injury all apply to changing the ____ and ____ of the suspect causing them to (two things):
    • Mind set
    • Behavior
    • 1) Cease aggressive action
    • 2)Comply with verbal commands
  14. What is penetrating trauma and how does it happen?
    The penetration of a SIM past the dermis layer of the skin.  It is the result of distance to target, shot placement, clothing of violator, and therefore too much kinetic energy.

    May occur from shooting someone inside minimum distance or using obsolete bag technology.
  15. What target areas should only be used as a last resort?
    The head, neck, spine and groin should not be a target area unless deadly force is the intent.

    Center mass hits have the highest probability for success but the potential to cause serious physical injury or death.
  16. Prior to deploying less lethal the officers must have:
    Threat escalation: the ability to escalate / change the force option is essential.  There has to be a plan for a higher level of force if the initial SIM selection is ineffective or misses (must have lethal option)

    Assess the level of threat

    Estimate the range to the target and determine the proper munitions or device for the situation

    Have a contact / control team ready
  17. When supervisor believes that all conditions have been met for firing the bean bag round, the supervisor will:
    Communicate to all officers on the scene that a bean bag round is about to be fired. (This notification to officers on scene is critical to avoid contagion with lethal gunfire)
  18. What is the firing protocol? (5 things)
    • Verbalize
    • Shoot
    • Order
    • Assess
    • Repeat
  19. What are the four types of SIMs?
    • Flexible projectiles
    • Non flexible projectiles
    • Rigid projectiles
    • Combination chemical / impact
  20. Any injury resulting from use of force could prompt litigation.  To avoid liability you must have followed:
    • Law
    • SOP
    • Training
  21. The actions of the officer, their training and department SOPs will be scrutinized to insure:
    You were reasonable, acting in good faith and under the color of law.
  22. Case law
    David V Mason County
    Ruled that the department had adequate training on the technical components, but not enough on the constitutional use of force.

    They were trained in the "how" but not the "why".
  23. Case law
    Plakas V Drinski
    Court ruled that there is no legal precedent that requires police to utilize alternatives to deadly force.
  24. Case law
    Graham V Conner
    • The case that defined the standard for excessive force.
    • Objective reasonableness.
  25. Case law
    Quezada V County of Bernalillo
    Ruled that an officer ma be liable for putting himself in a situation that requires him to use deadly force.

    Office left cover to engage subject.
  26. Case law
    City of Canton V Harris
    • City's failure to train.
    • Negligence was defined as "deliberately in different".
  27. How does storage effect the less lethal munitions?
    Less lethal munitions is good for 5 years when stored in the original packaging in 65 - 75 degrees at 30% humidity.

    Munitions stored in a vehicle have a life expectancy of about 1 year.
  28. Hydro Kinetic ALS1200
    • 70 grain gel pack
    • Range 2 - 8 yards
  29. Pen Prevent ALS1212
    • 40 gram tail stabilized
    • 7 - 20 yards
  30. Triton 1212T
    • 40 gram tail stabilized
    • 7 - 20 yards

    Most accurate and consistent munitions in its class.
  31. Power Punch ALS 1201
    • 26 gram med 7 - 20 yards
    • 40 gram high 7- 25 yards
  32. Rubber Fin Stabilized ALS1202 (HV)
    • 130 grain direct fire 80 durometer rubber rocket
    • 20 - 40 yards
    • (HV) 30 -55 yards
  33. Tri Dent ALS 1203
    • (3) 46 grain 80 durmeter rubber balls
    • 7 -25 yards
  34. Hornets Nest ALS 1204
    • (20) 30 caliber rubber balls
    • 3 - 10 yards

    (HV) 7 - 17 yards
  35. Mono Baton ALS 3706
    • 21 grams
    • 35 durometer rubber
    • 6 -20 yards
  36. Power Punch ALS 3702
    • 7 -20 yards
    • 100 gram bag
  37. Pen Prevent ALS 3704
    • 150 gram 6 layer bag
    • 7 - 20 yards
  38. Interlocking Rubber Batons ALS 3705
    • (3) 21 gram 35 durometer batons
    • 7 - 20 yards
  39. Interlocking Rubber Baton 3705L
    • (3) 21 gam 35 durometer batons
    • 5 - 15 feet
  40. Hornets Nest 3732/45/60
    • Direct or indirect fire
    • 32 cal., 180 / 5 grain 80 durometer balls
    • 45 cal., 69 / 14 grain 80 durometer balls
    • 60 cal., 24 / 36 grain 60 duromter balls

    5 - 17 yards
  41. REACT ALS 4006D
    • Direct fire
    • 33 gram 45 durometer
    • 10 - 40 yards
  42. it is a violation of federal law to spray any person with any OC labeled for use against animals.
  43. Fire Commercial OC formulation for law enforcement agencies was manufactured in and where?
    In a household garage in Florida in 1974.
  44. What is capsicum?
    Pepper.  Any solanaceous plant of genus capsicum.
  45. Capsaicinoids
    A group of compounds.
  46. Capsaicin
    • Inside the pepper.
    • The most abundant of the  compounds found in the capsaicinoids and is the most active OC ingredient.
  47. Oleoresin

    Oleoresin capsicum (oil of pepper)
  48. What is Scoville Heat Units (SHU)?
    Measure of heat derived from the burning sensation hen peppers are placed on the tongue.

    A panel of 5 testers assigns the measure based on their perception of taste as described by the American Spice Trade Association.
  49. What is Solvent and Propellant?
    Solvent- liquid capable of dissolving one or more substances.

    Propellant- the gas that pressurizes the container and forces the agent / carrier to the subject / target.
  50. OC is classified as a _____ ?
  51. Blepharospasm
    the uncontrolled blinking and closing of the eyes caused by an involuntary contraction of the eyelid muscle
  52. Irritant
    The chemical class of CS
  53. Lachrymator
    The chemical class of CN
  54. Micro Pulverized
    The state of a solid agent measuring 1 micron (1/25,000)
  55. Pyrotechnic
    A device that is made to burn a solid agent, vaporizing the chemical and attaching itself to the smoke that carries the agent through the air.
  56. Rhinorrhea
    The secretion of excessive amounts of mucous from the nose.
  57. Vapor Rate
    The time it takes to turn a solid or liquid into a gas.
  58. CN (Chloroacetophenone)
    • UN color is RED
    • Classification is Lachrymator
    • 10 times more toxic than CS
  59. CS
    • UN code: BLUE
    • Discovered in 1928 by B. B. Carson and R. W. Stoughton (Initials CS)
    • Classification is a irritant
  60. OC (Oleoresin Capsicum)
    • UN color code: Orange
    • Classification: Inflammatory
  61. Smoke
    • UN color code: Yellow
    • Classification: Obscurant
  62. What are the two forms of a chemical?
    • Solid
    • Liquid
  63. What is the type of fuze?
    Military M201A1.

    Average delay of 1.5 seconds.
Card Set:
Less Lethal
2014-01-26 21:12:05
Less Lethal
Less Lethal
Less Lethal
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