Parasitology 350: Terms

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mprosenberg
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258496
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Parasitology 350: Terms
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2014-01-26 18:10:57
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Parasitology 350
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Parasitology 350
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  1. Aberrant Parasite
    characteristic of host, but in unusual location within host
  2. Accidental Parasite
    one that is found in a host other than it's normal host (aka incidental parasite)
  3. Facultative Parasite
    establishes a relationship with host if opportunity presents itself
  4. Obligatory parasite
    one that is physiologically and metabolically dependent on the host
  5. Ectoparasite
    lives on the outer surface of host
  6. Endoparasite
    lives inside its host
  7. Permanent parasite
    lives entire adult life within/on host
  8. Temporary parasite
    contacts its host only to feed then leaves
  9. Definitive host
    one in which parasite reaches sexual maturity, or most important host if no sexual reproduction
  10. Intermediate Host
    one in which some development or aesexual reproduction occurs, no sexual maturity
  11. Paratenic host
    Host which parasite enters but does not undergo development or reproduction, remains infective to host
  12. Reservoir host
    "living source" of parasite, not primary host
  13. Vector host
    Intermediate host that actively transmits the disease organism (often time arthropods)
  14. Coelozoic
    lives in cavities of the host (i.e. peritoneal cavity, lumen of gut, blood vessels)
  15. Cytozoic
    intracellular parasite, lives within host cell
  16. Histozoic
    lives in the tissues of host, but not within cells
  17. Direct life cycle
    one host cycle (=monoxenous parasite), aka 'hand-to-mouth' cycle
  18. Indirect life cycle
    one requiring two or more hosts (=heteroxenous parasite)
  19. Cyclodevelopmental Transmission
    the parasite undergoes cyclical changes within the vector but does not multiply (developmental changes but no multiplication)
  20. Cyclopropagative Transmission
    the parasite undergoes cyclical changes and multiplies within the vector (developmental chance and multiplication)
  21. Propagative Transmission
    parasite multiplies within the vector but does not undergo developmental changes
  22. Mechanical transmission
    'flying syringe', transmission from one host to another is accomplished by contamination of mouthparts of an arthropod, is physically carried
  23. Endemic
    disease pathogen is present in an area and is expected to be there
  24. Epidemic
    presence of disease is at levels higher than what is normally expected
  25. Epidemiology
    'as it falls upon the people', the ecology of disease, study of transmission and impact
  26. Pandemic
    worldwide epidemic
  27. Incidence
    number of new cases of infection in a given time period divided by number of uninfected/susceptible hosts at beginning of the time period
  28. Intensity
    number of parasites in a given host
  29. Mean Intensity
    total number of parasites recovered (over multiple hosts) divided by number of infected hosts
  30. Density
    number of parasites per unit area, weight, volume of tissue
  31. Over dispersion
    A general rule in which a few hosts harbor the majority of the parasites in a population
  32. Prevalence
    number of infected hosts, divided by the number of hosts examined at a point in time
  33. Under dispersion
    in contrast to an overdispersion, this is a population in which all hosts have a similar number of parasites
  34. Predation
    One organism eats the second
  35. Phoresy
    'Hitching a ride'
  36. Mutualism
    Classic symbiosis, both benefit
  37. Synnecrosis
    'Mutually assured destruction' both species are destroyed
  38. Amensalism
    One is impeded/killed, and other doesn't care
  39. Neutralism
    Neither species benefit/are hurt
  40. Commensalism
    One benefits, other isn't hurt
  41. Parasitism
    One benefits and the other is hurt
  42. Which two can commonly be filled by a single species?
    Commensalism and Parasitism can be a blurry line
  43. 6 actions of parasites
    • -Rob nutrients-Eat host tissue
    • -Secrete toxic waste products
    • -Mechanical damage
    • -Autoimmune response damage
    • -Some combination of the above

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