Chapter 12 - Northern and Southern Europe
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Physical Geography of the Regions
What do the capital cities of Norway, Sweden, and Finland have in common geographically?
Each of the capital cities are by a water source. Oslo (Norway) is right net to a river that is close to Skagerrak. Stockholm (Sweden) is right next to the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia. Helsinki (Finland) is right by the Baltic Sea.
What Greek philosopher taught in Athens in 335 BC?
How do you think having printed books affected Europeans during the Renaissance?
More people learned how to read and this gives them an advantage over the people who don't know how to read.
Define the following terms: glaciations, fjord, tundra, trawlers.
glaciations - the process of becoming covered by glaciers
fjord - a narrow, U-shaped coastal valley with steep sides formed by the action of glaciers
tundra - a flat, treeless plain with permanently frozen ground
trawlers - a large fishing boat
What countries are considered to be in Scandinavia?
Scandinavia includes Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. If you add Finland and Iceland, it's no longer Scandinavia, but what is called "the Nordic countries".
What geologic force carved out a large amount of Scandinavia?
The Scandinavian Peninsula has a spine of rugged mountains, formed when two tectonic plates collided. Glaciation, or the weathering and erosion caused by moving masses of ice called glaciers, carved the land into the mountains and plateaus we see today.
What is the Iberian Peninsula?
The Iberian Peninsula is the piece of land that is home to Portugal and Spain.
What geologic feature is much of Norway's west coast dotted by?
Northern Scandinavia is covered with which type of land?
How can you contrast a Mediterranean climate and a continental climate?
Warm Southern Europe and chilly Northern Europe.
What are the main sources of income in Northern Europe?
Wood, oil, natural gas, mineral ores, and fossil fuels.
What are the main crops of the Mediterranean region?
How have trawlers affected the fishing industry?
They have over fished and polluted the water.
History of the Regions
Define the following: City-State, longship, pagan, Renaissance
City-State - an independent political unit that includes a city and the surrounding area
longship - a ship with oars and a sail used by the Vikings
pagan - someone who believes in more than one god or someone who has little or no religious belief
Renaissance - the period in Europe that began in Italy in the 1300s and lasted into the 1600s, during which art and learning flourished
What were two powerful rival city-states in the 400's BC?
Athens and Sparta.
What were the Persian Wars?
Powerful city-states, such as Athens and Sparta, were rivals, but they faced a common enemy to the east in mighty Persia. When the Persians invaded the Greek mainland in 490 BC, the combined forces of Athens's navy and Sparta's army spent 40 years defeating them.
Who were three famous Greek philosophers?
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
What Greek ruler that died at age 33 invaded a weakened Greece and spread their rule all over the region?
The Macedonian king, Alexander the Great.
Where were the Vikings from and what did they do?What was their early religion?
Scandinavia and they began raiding the coasts of Western Europe. Pagan.
What was the Renaissance?
When the Byzantine Empire fell in 1453, many scholars traveled west with ancient Greek manuscripts. At the same time, a practical printing press was invented in Germany. Suddenly, it was possible to print many copies of manuscripts that until then had to be lettered by hand. People could now own and read books. These breakthroughs resulted in a period of artistic and intellectual activity known as the Renaissance.
Who were Galileo and Copernicus?
What happened in Spain and Portugal in the 1400's?
They wanted to do more business with China and India so they tried to figure out a way to get there.
Who were the following: Bartholomeu Dias, Vasco de Gama, Christopher Columbus, Leif Eriksson?
Bartholomeu Dias - In 1488 Portuguese sea captain Bartholomeu Dias reached the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa.
Vasco de Gama - Ten years later, Vasco de Gama rounded the Cape and sailed to India.
Christopher Columbus - an Italian navigator, had a different idea: Why not reach Asia via a westward sea route? He left Spain with three ships on August 3, 1492. He ended up on a Caribbean island.
Leif Eriksson - About the year AD 1000, Leif Eriksson led the Vikings to a land he named Vinland. Vinland was Newfoundland, in Canada. Eriksson became the first European known to have reached North America.
Who were the Moors and when were they in power?
The Moors were Muslims, followers of Islam, who invaded Spain from Northern Africa in the AD 700s and ruled most of Spain for more than 700 years.
What was the Protestant Reformation?
During the 1520s, the ideas of Martin Luther contributed to the spread of the Protestant Reformation. Kingdoms across Northern Europe broke away from the Roman Catholic religion. The countries adopted some form of Protestantism as their official state religion.
What roles did both Spain and Italy play in World War II?
Spain stayed out of World War II. Italy, ruled by dictator Benito Mussolini, sided with Nazi Germany in that conflict. The Italians were defeated by allied US and British forces in 1943, a year and a half before the war in Europe ended.
How is the standard of living in Scandinavia?
Life in Northern and Southern Europe
Define the following: dialect and recession
dialect - a regional variety of a language with unique features, such as vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation
recession - a time when many businesses close and people lose their jobs
What is the life expectancy in this region?
The population is aging because there are fewer babies being born and people are living longer.
The ancient Greeks believed their gods were immortal. What does that mean?
Immortal means they will live forever and not die, ever.
How much of Greece's population are living in Athens?
Where does most of Northern Europe's population live and why?
Most people live in the southern parts of the countries because of the milder climates.
When did construction on the Sagrada Familia Catholic Church in Barcelona begin and finish?
1880s and is due to be finished about 2026.
What are the dominant religions in Northern and Southern Europe?
Northern - Lutheran, Catholic, Muslim, and pagan
Southern - Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Muslim
What country is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance?
Denmark has made a major contribution to children's toys. What is this toy?
How are the taxing and the benefits from government for people living in Northern Europe?
The educational system has strong support from the government. Citizens pay high taxes, but in return receive a variety of public services and social welfare benefits. Every citizen is covered by health insurance.
How did the financial crisis of 2008 affect Northern and Southern Europe?
They experienced a recession. The three biggest banks in Iceland failed, forcing Iceland's prime minister to resign. The financial crisis hit Spain and Greece hard. Greece's inability to pay its skyrocketing debts became a threat to the economies of all the European countries.
How does the aging of Europe's population affect the area?
The population is aging because there are fewer babies being born and people are living longer. There are improvements in the standard of living.
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