Psych 241 Ch 2

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sandydamico
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258503
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Psych 241 Ch 2
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2014-01-27 02:05:27
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  1. Sherry is 4 ½ years old and loves to play with the remote controls for the TV and DVD player as well as with her toys. Her kindergarten teacher reports that Sherry always follows the teacher's directions and often helps to explain to her classmates why they are engaging in activities like lining up for lunch time. According to Erikson's theory, Sherry is successfully going through which stage of development?

    trust vs mistrust
    anatomy vs shame and doubt
    initiative vs guilt
    industry vs inferiority
    initiative vs guilt
  2. Psychologists who object to the heredity vs. environment debate do so on the basis that:

    heredity is primary and is responsible for all observable traits
    environment is primary and is responsible for all observable traits
    heredity and environment interact to influence observable traits
    some traits are due to heredity and others are due to environment
    heredity and environment interact to influence observable traits
  3. Eight-year-old Margie is watching her little brother Harry play with clay. When Harry takes the lump of clay and rolls it into a "snake," he comments, "Look, I made it bigger." Margie replies, "No silly, it's the same amount of clay; you just stretched it." Margie's reasoning reflects which of Piaget's stages of development

    sensorimotor
    preoperational
    concrete operations
    formal operations
    concrete operations
  4. The process of changing one's schema to make it match the world of reality better is what Piaget termed:

    modification
    accommodation
    schematization
    assimilation
    accommodation
  5. A set of interrelated statements that provides an explanation for a class of events is called a:

    conjecture
    observation
    empirical set
    theory
    theory
  6. Behavioral theorists divide the environment into units called:

    responses
    units of analysis
    reflexes
    stimuli
    stimuli
  7. Behavior modification uses:

    rewards only
    punishment only
    both rewards and punishments
    neither rewards and punishments
    both rewards and punishments
  8. A type of learning on which the consequences of a behavior alter the strength of that behavior is called:

    classical conditioning
    operant conditioning
    stimulus response
    response conditioning
    operant conditioning
  9. Five-year-old Nora is excited to see that it is starting to snow. She exclaims, "Wow, it's snowing so that I can make a snowman!" This kind of egocentric thinking is related to which of Piaget's stage of development?

    sensorimotor
    preoperational
    concrete operations
    formal operations
    preoperational
  10. Erikson's developmental tasks are referred to as:

    psychomotor stages
    psychosexual stages
    psychosocial stages
    social-behavioral stages
    psychosocial stages
  11. Marietta is unable to sustain a lasting, meaningful romantic relationship. Seeking help, she visits a psychologist who probes her to elaborate on her childhood experiences. The psychologist is using an approach based upon:

    psychosocial theory
    ecological theory
    psychoanalytic theory
    talk therapy
    psychoanalytic theory
  12. The person associated with developing the sociocultural theory of development is:

    Kurt Lewin
    Urie Bronfenbrenner
    Lev Vygotsky
    Erik Erikson
    Lev Vygotsky
  13. Which statement does NOT reflect the ideas of Piaget?

    Children's thoughts are miniature versions of adults' thoughts
    As children grow up, the form of their thoughts change
    A child operates from a different mental framework than an adult
    Children adapt by constructing mental frameworks called schemas
    Children's thoughts are miniature versions of adults' thoughts
  14. Connie has just completed college and has found a position as an elementary school teacher. She and her boyfriend Mark are talking about getting married in a few years. According to Erikson's theory, Connie is in which stage of development?

    identity vs identity confusion
    intimacy vs isolation
    generativity vs stagnation
    integrity vs despair
    intimacy vs isolation
  15. An approach that applies learning theory and experimental psychology to altering maladaptive behavior is called:

    response feedback
    behavior modification
    experimental learning
    behavior adjustment
    behavior modification
  16. The units that behavioral theorists have divided behavior into are called:

    unites of analysis
    responses
    reflexes
    stimuli
    responses
  17. Which research design would be best suited to the ecological approach to understanding human development?

    experimental
    cross-sectional
    social survey
    longitudinal
    • experimental
    • longitudinal
  18. Marie loves her baby niece Fiona because of her tiny fingers, big brown eyes, and cute smile. When Fiona cries Marie always responds by picking her up to soothe her. Fiona's behaviors and characteristics are examples of what ethologists call:

    the cuteness quotient
    releasing stimuli
    infant survival techniques
    responsive stimuli
    releasing stimuli
  19. Freud's theories have been critiqued on the basis of:

    an underdeveloped explanation for human behavior
    dismissing the importance of childhood experience
    the lack of definite stages
    explanations that are based solely on adult patients
    • an underdeveloped explanation for human behavior
    • dismissing the importance of childhood experience
    • explanations that are based solely on adult patients
  20. Emotions have not been researched with the same vigor as cognition until recently because:

    Freud did not think emotions were important
    Descartes believed the body and mind are one
    emotions are hard to quantify and measure
    cross-cultural studies revealed that emotions vary too much by culture to study accurately
    emotions are hard to quantify and measure

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