Pharmacology - Quinolones, Urinary Antiseptics and Metronidazole 2

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Pharmacology - Quinolones, Urinary Antiseptics and Metronidazole 2
2014-01-26 19:19:18
Pharmacology Quinolones Urinary Antiseptics Metronidazole

Pharmacology - Quinolones, Urinary Antiseptics and Metronidazole 2
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  1. Are flouroquionoles very effective against strep and staph?
    Not in general
  2. In general, what diseases can be treated with flouroquinolones?
    UTIs, Reproductive tract infections, gastroenteritis, G- bone infections, pneumonia, sinusitis, typhoid and resistant TB
  3. Which flouroquinolones are not used for UTIs and why?
    Moxifloxacin and Gembifloxacin, because they are broken down before they reach the urinary system
  4. Do flouroquinolones treat syphyilis?
  5. Do flouroquinolones treat Chlamydia?
  6. Why do flouroquinolones treat G- bone infections?
    Because they bond metal ions, so they bind Ca
  7. What flouroquinolones is usually used for bone infections?
  8. What flouroquinolones are used for pneumonia?
    Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Moxifloxacin
  9. What flouroquinolones are used for sinusitis and bronchitis?
    Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Moxifloxacin
  10. What are some of the adverse effect of flouroquinolones?
    N/HA/abdominal pain, CNS toxicity, Photosensitivity, prolonged QT interval, arthropathy, tendonitis, cartilage damage, taste disturbances
  11. Should flouroquinolones be given during pregnancy?
  12. Which flouroquinolones often causes a prolonged QT interval?
  13. What is arthropathy?
    Painful joints
  14. Is flouroquinolone induced arthropathy reversible?
  15. What tendon is commonly involved in flouroquinolone induced tendonitis?
  16. What type fo taste disturbance is common with flouroquinolones?
    Metal mouth
  17. Pulling your Achilles tendon while taking flouroquinolones can be made more likely by what other factors?
    Being over 60 and taking corticosteroids
  18. What DDIs are common with flouroquinolones?
    Inhibit metabolism of theophyline, polyvalent cations inhibit flouroquinolone absorption, NSAIDs may increase CNS toxicity
  19. To avoid polyvalent cations thatcould inhibit absorption of a flouroquinolone, what recommendations would you have for a patient?
    Separate by a couple of hours: Antacids, milk and Iron supplements
  20. What are the urinary antisepetics?
    Naladic acid, mthenamine and nitrofurantoin
  21. Is naladixic acid fluorinated?
  22. Is naladixic acid commonly used, why or why not?
    No, because it has rapid resistance and flouroquinolones do a better job
  23. What kind of drug is naladixic acid?
  24. Why would you not use Naladixic acid in children?
    Because of its catiledge/tendon issues
  25. Is Naladixic acid used for pneumonia, why or why not?
    No, not potent enough, really only used for UTIs
  26. Under what age should you not give Naladixic acid?
    16 years
  27. What are the side effect sof Naladixic acid?
    Similar to flouroquinolones: N/HA, photosensitivity, arthropathy
  28. What is the MOA for Methanamine?
    Forms formaldehyde, which kills the bacteria
  29. What type of infections in Methanamine used for?
  30. By what route is Methanamine given?
  31. Why is Methanamine given with mandelic acid or hippuric acid?
    To lower the pH and allow Methanamine to form formaldehyde
  32. What environment does Methanamine work in?
    Low pH, need low pH to form formaldehyde
  33. Is Methanamine a first line drug?
    No, only used when you can’t get anything else to work
  34. How is Nitrofurantoin given?
  35. What is the MOA of Nitrofurantoin?
    Alkylating drug: Reduced to an amine by nitroreductase after which it damages DNA via an alkylation reaction