A&P Quiz 3

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A&P Quiz 3
2014-02-12 19:18:29

A&P Quiz 3
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  1. Infants and Breathing
    • Breath 2-3 times more often that adults
    • Thoracic cavity is too small for lungs to expand adequately 
    • Thorax grows faster than lungs so they will gradually take deeper breaths
  2. Spirometer
    Measures respiratory flow, volume, and capacity
  3. Wet spirometer
    Causes water to be displaced when breathing to measure respiratory flow, volume, and capacity
  4. Incentive Spirometer
    • Used to help improve lung function
    • Blown into to maintain ball at certain level
  5. U-tube Manometer
    measures pressure
  6. Lungs
    • Highly elastic 
    • Porous
  7. Cycle of Respiration
    • One inspiration and one expiration
    • Inhalation 40% of cycle
    • Exhalation 60% of cycle
  8. Respiratory Cycles by Age
    • Newborns: 40-70 cycles/min
    • 5yrs: 25 cycles/min
    • 15yrs: 20 cycles/min
    • Adult: 12-18 cycles/min
  9. Resting Tidal Volume
    • Volume of air moved during quiet respiration
    • (How much you breathe in and out in one cycle)
  10. Tidal Volume
    • Volume of air exchanged in one cycle of respiration
    • Regardless of amount of air exchanged
    • Varies by individual and by action
  11. Inspiratory Reserve Volume
    • Volume that can be inhaled after tidal volume inspiration
    • Breathe in and then breathe in again
  12. Expiratory Reserve Volume
    • Amount of air that can be expired after a tidal expiration. 
    • Breathe out then breathe out again.
  13. Residual Volume
    • Volume remaining in the lungs after maximum exhalation
    • Remains in lungs to keep them from collapsing 
    • Amount always stays the same
    • Cannot be exhaled, even forcibly
  14. Vital Capacity
    • Total volume of air that can be inspired after a total expiration 
    • Represents the capacity that we have available for speech
    • Equal to inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, and tidal volumes combined
  15. Functional Residual Capacity
    • Volume of air left in lungs after passive exhalation
    • Includes expiratory reserve and residual volumes
  16. Total Capacity
    Inspiratory reserve, Expiratory reserve, Tidal, and Residual volumes combined
  17. Vital Capacity and Age
    • Increases until 20 yrs
    • Stays level until age 25 
    • Decreases after age 25
    • *Males have larger vital capacity because they are bigger
  18. Pressure
    • Speech requires air under pressure
    • Airflow must be restricted/resisted to maintain pressure
    • Pressure maintained by adjusting force of expiration and airway resistance
  19. Subglottal Pressure
    Pressure that builds in the trachea below the vocal folds.
  20. Alveolar Pressure
    • Pressure in the alveolar air sacs 
    • Used to vary the loudness of syllables
    • Without adjustment speech is monotone
    • Changing pressure creates inflection
  21. Intraoral Pressure
    • Pressure created in the mouth
    • Helps to change the intensity of sounds and syllables
  22. Pressure for Life Function
    Has no resistance, breathe in and out without blockage (uninterrupted)
  23. Volume for Speech Breathing vs Quiet Breathing
    • Resting Lung Volume: what is left in lungs after exhale and before inhale 40%
    • QB adds 10-15% to resting lung volume (total 50-55%)
    • SB adds 25% to resting lung volume (total 65%)
    • Loud SB (yelling) adds 40% to resting lung volume (total 80%)
  24. Frequency in Speech Breathing vs Quiet Breathing
    • How often you are breathing (Number of cycles completed)
    • SB doesn't inhale as much as QB because you speak on exhaled air
    • Frequency decreases during conversation because you take longer to exhale since you are speaking in that air 
    • (You might have less breaths but you inhale enough to continue speech)
    • Cycle is longer for longer utterance
    • Frequency increases when yelling and whispering
  25. Duration in Speech Breathing vs Quiet Breathing
    • How long one respiratory cycle lasts 
    • Lasts longer when speaking
    • SB is 10% inhale and 90% exhale 
    • QB is 40% inhale and 60% exhale 
    • Air runs out faster if you are whispering or speaking loudly
    • Uses Checking Action
    • Exhale longer because you are speaking on it
  26. Checking Action
    • Muscles of inspiration control the airflow for speaking
    • Muscles of inhalation control decreasing of thoracic cavity
    • Muscles of expiration begin working when user starts to use expiratory reserve volume
  27. Effect of Posture on Speech
    • Diaphragm cannot contract as far
    • Thoracic cavity cannot expand fully
    • Laying on your back (supine) can only breathe in 20% instead of 40% because of gravity; muscles have to work harder to bring it back to 40% (resting lung volume reduced)
    • Gravity pulls against the ribs to prohibit expansion